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was accidental ; because by the Jewish law, it is expressly remarked, the bodies could not remain on the cross during the Sabbath-day. (Lipsius, De Cruce,' Casaubon, Exer. Antibaron. xvi. 77.) r [B.J.]

CRYPT A (from Kpvfrrei^ to conceal), a crypt. Amongst the Romans, any long narrow vault, whether wholly or partially below the level of the earth, is expressed by this term ; such as a sewer (crypta Suburae, Juv. Sat.v. 106) [cloaca] ; the carceres of the circus [CiRCUS, p. 285] ; or a magazine for the reception of agricultural produce. (Vitruv. vi. 8 ; comp. Varro, R. R. i. 57.)

The specific senses of the word are : —

1. A covered portico or arcade ; called more definitely crypto-porticus, because it was not sup­ported by open columns like the ordinary portico, but closed at the sides, with windows only for the admission of light and air. (Plin. Epist. ii. 15, v. 6, vii. 21 ; Sidon. Epist. ii. 2.) These were frequented during summer for their coolness. A portico of this kind, almost entire, is still remain­ing in the suburban villa of Arrius Diomedes at Pompeii. [PoRTicus.]

Some theatres, if not all, had a similar portico attached to them for the convenience of the per­formers, who there rehearsed their parts. (Suet. Cal. 58 ; compare Dion Cass. lix. 20 ; Joseph. Antiq. xix. 1. § 14.) One of these is mentioned by P. Victor (Regio ix.) as the crypta Balbi, at­tached to the theatre built by Cornelius Balbus at the instigation of Augustus (Suet. Aug. 29 ; Dion Cass. liv. 25), which is supposed to be the ruin now seen in the Via di S. Maria di Cacaberis, be­tween the church of that name and the S. Maria di Pianto.

2. A grotto, particularly one open at both ex­tremities, forming what in modern language is denominated a " tunnel," like the grotto of Pausi-lippo, well known to every visitant of Naples. This is a tunnel excavated in the tufo rock, about 20 feet high, and 1800 long, forming the direct communication between Naples and Pozzuoli (Pu-teoli], called by the Romans crypta Neapolitana, and described by Seneca (Epist. 57) and Strabo who calls it 5to5pu| KpuTrr-^ (v. p. 246 ; compare Petron. Frag. xiii.).

A subterranean vault used for any secret wor­ship, but more particularly for the licentious rites consecrated to Priapus, was also called crypta. (Petron. Sat. xvi. 3 ; compare xvii. 8.)

3. When the practice of consuming the body by fire was relinquished [FuNus], and a number of bodies were consigned to one place of burial, as •the catacombs for instance, this common tomb was called crypta. (Salmas. Exercit. Plinian. p. 850 ; Aring. Rom. Subterr. i. 1. § 9 ; Prudent. IIepl :2re0. xi. 153.) One of these, the crypta Nepo-tiana, which was in the vicus Patricius, under the Esquiline (Festus, s. v. Septimontium), was used by the early Christians, during the times of their persecution, as a place of secret worship, as well as of interment, and contains many interesting inscriptions. (Nardini, Rom. Antic, iv. 3 ; Mait-land, The Church in the Catacombs.} [A. R.]

CRYPTEIA (ttpvTrreta, also called, irpvirrla. or /C0U7TT7?), was, according to Aristotle (ap. Pint. Lye. 28), an institution introduced at Sparta by 'the legislation of Lycurgus. Tf,s character was so cruel and atrocious, that Plutarch only with great reluctance submitted to the authority of Aristotle



in ascribing its introduction to the Spar-tan law­giver. The description which he gives of it is this: — The ephors, at intervals, selected from among the young Spartans, those who appeared to be best qualified for the task, and sent them in various directions all over the country, provided with daggers and their necessary food. During the daytime, these young men concealed them­selves ; but at night they broke forth into the high-roads, and massacred those of the helots whom they met, or whom they thought proper. Sometimes also they ranged over the fields (in the daytime) and despatched the strongest and best of the helots. This account agrees with that of Heracleides of Pontus (c. 2), who speaks of the practice as one that was still carried on in his own time, though he describes its introduction by Ly­curgus only as a report.

The crypteia has generally been considered either as a kind of military training of the Spartan youths, in which, as in other cases, the lives of the helots were unscrupulously sacrificed ; or as a means of lessening the numbers and weakening the power of the slaves. But Miiller (Dorians, iii. 3. § 4), who is anxious to soften the notions generally current respecting the relations between the helots and their masters, supposes that Plutarch and Heracleides represent the institution of the crypteia " as a war which the ephors themselves, on entering upon their yearly office, proclaimed against the helots." Heracleides, however, does not mention this proclamation at all; and Plutarch, who mentions it on the authority of Aristotle, does not represent it as identical with the crypteia. Miiller also supposes that, according to the re­ceived opinion, this chase of the slaves took place regularly every year ; and showing at once the absurdity of such an annual proclamation of war and massacre among the slaves, he rejects what he calls the common opinion altogether as involved in inextricable difficulties, and has recourse to Plato to solve the problem. But Thirl wall (Hist. Greece, vol. i. p* 31J) much more judiciously considers that this proclamation of war is not altogether groundless, but only a misrepresentation of some­thing else, and that its real character was most probably connected with the crypteia. Now, if we suppose that the thing here misrepresented and exaggerated into a proclamation of war, was some promise which the ephors on entering upon their office were obliged to make, for instance, to protect the state against any danger that might arise from too great an increase of the numbers and power of the helots — a promise which might very easily be distorted into a proclamation of war — there is nothing contrary to the spirit of the legislation of Lycurgus ; and such an institution, by no means surprising in a slave-holding state like Sparta, where the number of free citizens was compara­tively very small, would have conferred upon the ephors the legal authority occasionally to send out a number of young Spartans in chase of the helots. (Isocr. Panath. p. 271, b.) That on certain oc­casions, when the state had reason to fear the overwhelming number of slaves, thousands were massacred with the sanction of the public authori­ties, is a well-known fact. (Thucyd. iv. 80.) It is, however, probable enough that such a system may at first have been carried on with some degree of moderation ; but after attempts had been made by the slaves to emancipate themselves and put

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