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43), represents one of these crotalistriae performing.
or Kpoxwrbs sc. xit(*>v\ was a kind of gala dress, chiefly worn by women on solemn occasions, and in Greece especially, at the festival of the Dionysia. (Aristoph. Ran. 46, with the SchoL Lysistr. 44 ; Pollux, iv. 18. 117.) It was also worn by the priest of Cybele (Apul. Met. 8 and 11 ; Virg. Aen. ix. 614), and sometimes by men of effeminate character. (Aristoph. Thesmoph. 253 ; Suidas, s. v. ; Plant, and Naevius, ap. Nonium, xiv. 8. and xvi. 4; Cic. • Harusp. Resp. 21.) It is evident from the passage of Virgil, that its name was derived from crocus, one of the favourite colours of the Greek ladies, as we still see in the pictures discovered at Herculaneum and Pompeii. The circumstance that dresses of this colour were in Latin commonly called vestes crocatae or cro- ceae, has induced some writers on antiquities to suppose that crocota was derived from kpoktj (woof or weft), or icpoicis (a flake of wool or cotton on the surface of the cloth), so that it would be a soft and woolly kind of dress. (Salmas. ad Ca pitol in. Pertinac. 8. t. 1. p. 547, and ad Tertull. De Pall. p. 329.) But the passages above referred to are sufficient to refute this opinion, and the name crocota was, like many others, adopted by the Romans from the Greeks. (Compare Becker's CharikleSi vol. ii. p. 351, &c.) [L. S.J
CRONIA (/epopee), a festival celebrated at Athens in honour of Cronos, whose worship was said to have been introduced into Attica b}r Cecrops. He had a temple in common with Rhea. (Pans. i. 18. § 7 ; comp. vi. 20. § 1.) The festival was held on the twelfth of the month of Hecatombaeon (Demosth. c. Timocr. p. 708 ; Plut. Thes. 12 ; Etym. M. s. v.), which, at an early period of the history of Attica, bore the name of fji-rjv Kpoviwv. (Athen. xiii. p. 581.)
The Rhodians also celebrated a festival in honour of Cronos — perhaps the Phoenician Moloch — to whom human sacrifices, generally consisting of criminals, were offered. The festival was held on the sixteenth of Metageitnion. (Porphyr. De Abstinent, ii. 54.)
Greek writers, when speaking of the Roman Saturnalia, apply to them the name Kp6uia^ which in the early times seem to have really resembled them in their excessive merriment. (See Athen. xiv. p. 63,9 ; Appian, Samn. 10. § 5 ; Buttmann, Mytfiol. vol. ii. p. 52, &c.) [L. S.]
CROTALUM (/cprfTaAov), a kind of cymbal, erroneously supposed by some writers to be the same with the sistrum. [sistrum.] The mistakes of learned men on this point are refuted at length by Lamp? (De Cymb. Vet. i. 4, 5, 6). From Suidas and the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Nubes, 260), it appears to have been a split reed or cane, which clattered when shaken with the hand. According to Eustathius (II. xi. 160), it was made of shell and brass, as well as of wood. Clemens. Alexandrinus further says that it was an invention of the Sicilians.
Women who played on the crotalum were termed crotalistriae. Such was Virgil's Copa (2),
" Crispum sub crotalo docta movere latus.1"
The line alludes to the dance with crotala (similar to castanets), for which we have the additional testimony of Macrobius (Sat. ii. 10). The annexed woodcut, taken from the drawing of an ancient marble m Spon's Miscellanea (sec. i. art. vi. fig.
The word KporaXov is often applied, by an easy metaphor, to a noisy talkative person. (Aristoph. Niilt. 448 ; Eurip. Cyd. 104.) [B. J.]
CRUX ((TravpSs, (T/eJAoiJ/), an instrument of capital punishment, used by several ancient nations, especially the Romans and Carthaginians. The words crravpow and ovcoAoTri^w are also applied to Persian and Egyptian punishments, but Casaubon (Exer. Antibaron. xvi. 77) doubts whether they describe the Roman method of crucifixion. From Seneca (Cons, ad Marc, xx., Epist. xiv. 1) we learn the latter to have been of two kinds, the less usual sort being rather impalement than what we should describe by the word crucifixion, as the criminal was transfixed by a pole, which passed through the back and spine and came out at the mouth.
The cross was of several kinds ; one in the shape of an X, called cnux Andreana, because tradition reports St. Andrew to have suffered upon it ; another was formed like a T, as we learn from Lucian (Judic. Vocal, xii.), who makes it the subject of a charge against the letter.
The third, and most common sort, was made of two pieces of wood crossed, so as to make four right angles. It was on this, according to the unanimous testimony of the fathers who sought to confirm it by Scripture itself (Lips. De Cruce, \. 9), that our Saviour suffered. The punishment, as is well known, was chiefly inflicted on slaves, and the worst kind of malefactors. (Juv. vi. 219 ; Hor. Sat. i. 3. 82.) The manner of it was as follows : — The criminal, after sentence pronounced, carried his cross to the place of execution ; a custom mentioned by Plutarch (De Tard. Dei Vind. eKaffros t&v KaKOvpywv eK<|>epei rbj> avrov ffrravp6v^ and Artemidorus (Oneir. ii. 61), as well as in the Gospels. From Livy (xxxiii. 36) and Valerius Maximus (i. 7), scourging appears to have formed a part of this, as of other capital punishments among the Romans. The scourging of our Saviour, however, is not to be regarded in this light, for, as Grotius and Hammond have observed, it was inflicted before sentence was pronounced. (St. Luke, xxiii. 16 ; St. John, xix. 1. 6.) The criminal was next stripped of his clothes and nailed or bound to the cross. The latter was the more painful method, as the sufferer was left to die of hunger. Instances are recorded of persons who survived nine days. It was usual to leave the body on the cross after death. The breaking of the legs of the thieves, mentioned in the Gospels*