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who spilled least of the wine gained the victory, and thereby knew that he was loved by his mistress. (See Schol. ad Lucian. Letxiph. 3. vol. ii. p. 325.)
A fourth kind of cottabus, which was called ic6TTa€os KaraKr6s (airb rov Kardyew rbv k.ot-Tagov), is described by Pollux (vi. 109), the Scholiast on Aristophanes ('Po#, 1172), and Athe-naeus (xv. p. 667). The so-called udi/rjs was placed upon a pillar similar to a candelabrum, and the dish hanging over it must, by means of wine projected from the goblet, be thrown upon it, and thence fall into a basin filled with water, which from this fall gave forth a sound ; and he who produced the strongest was the victor, and received prizes, consisting of eggs, cakes, and sweetmeats.
This brief description of four various forms of the cottabus may be sufficient to show the general character of this game ; and it is only necessary to add, that the chief object to be accomplished in all the various modifications of the cottabus was to throw the wine out of the goblet in such a manner that it should remain together and nothing be spilled, and that it should produce the purest and strongest possible sound in the place where it was thrown. In Sicily, the popularity of this game was so great, that houses were built for the especial purpose of playing the cottabus in them. Those readers who wish to become fully acquainted with all the various forms of this game, may consult Athenaeus (xv. p. 666, &c.), the Greek Lexico graphers, and, above all, Groddeck (Ueber den Kottabos der Griechen, in his Antiquarisclie Ver- sucke,i. Sammlung, 1800, pp. 163—238), who has collected and described nine different forms in which it was played. Becker (ChariUes^ i. p. 476, &c.) is of opinion that all of them were but modi fications of two principal forms* (Compare also Fr. Jacobs, Ueber den Kottabos in Wieland^s Attisches Museum^ iii. 1. pp. 475—496.) [L. S.]
COTYLA (koti^a^) was a measure of capacity among the Romans and Greeks; by the former it was also called hemina ; by the latter, rpv§\tov and iujlivo. or y/jLiuva. It was the half of the sextarius or !«rT77«f, and contained 6 cyathi, or nearly half a pint English.
This measure was used by physicians with a graduated scale marked on it, like our own chemi cal measures, for measuring out given weights of fluids, especially oil. A vessel of horn, of a cubic or cylindrical shape, of the capacity of a cotyla, was divided into twelve equal parts by lines cut on its side. The whole vessel was called litra^ and each of the parts an ounce (undo). This measure held nine ounces (by weight) of oil, so that the ratio of the weight of the oil to the number of ounces it occupied in the measure would be 9 : 12 or 3 : 4* (Galenus, De Compos. Medicam. per Genera^ iii. 3, i. 16, 17, iv. 14, v. 3, 6, vi. 6, 8 ; Wurm, De Pond. Mens. &c. ; Hussey., On Ancient Weights^ &c.) [P. S.]
COTYTTIA or COTTYTES (kotvttio,, kot-fuTes), a festival which was originally celebrated by the Edonians of Thrace, in honour of a goddess called Cotys Of Cotytto. (Strab. x. p. 470 ; Eupolis, apud Hesych* s. ft.; Suidas.) It was held at night, and, according to Strabo, resembled the festivals of the Cabeiri and the Phrygian Cybeta But the worship of CotySj together with the festival of the Cotyttia, was adopted by several Greek states, chiefly those which were induced by their com-
mercial interest to maintain friendly relations with Thrace. Among these Corinth is expressly men tioned by Suidas, and Strabo (x. p. 471) seems to suggest that the worship of Cotys was adopted by the Athenians, who, as he observes, were as hospitable to foreign gods as they were to foreigners in general. (Compare Juven. Sat. ii. 92.) The priests of the goddess were formerly supposed to have borne the name of baptae; but Buttmann has shown that this opinion is utterly groundless. Her festivals were notorious among the ancients for the dissolute manner and the debaucheries with which they were celebrated. (Suidas, s. v. K6rvs ; Herat. Epod. xvii. 56 ; Theocrit. vi. 40.) Another festival of the same name was celebrated in Sicily (Plut. Proverb.}, where boughs hung with cakes and fruit were carried about, which any person had a right to pluck off if he chose ; but we have no mention that this festival was polluted with any of the licentious practices which disgraced those of Thrace and Greece, unless we refer the allusion made by T'heocritus to the Cotyttia, to the Sicilian festival. (Compare Buttmann's essay, Ueber die Kotyttia, und die Baptae., in his Mytliologus^ vol. ii. p. 159; Lobeck, Aglaopli. pp. 627, 1007, &c.) [L. S.]
COVINARII. [CoviNus.J COVI'NUS (Celtic, kowain), a kind of car, the spokes of which were armed with long sickles, and which was used as a scythe-chariot chiefly by the ancient Belgians and Britons. (Mela, iii. 6 ; Lucan, i. 426 ; Silius, xvii. 422.) The Romans designated, by the name of covinus, a kind of travelling car riage, which seems to have been covered on all sides with the exception of the front. It had' no seat for a driver, but was conducted by the travel ler himself, who sat inside. (Mart. Epig. ii. 24.) There must have been a great similarity between the Belgian scythe-chariot and the Roman travel ling carriage, as the name of the one was transferred to the other, and we may justly conclude that the Belgian car was likewise covered on all sides, ex cept the front, and that it was occupied by one man, the covinarius only, who was, by the struc ture of his car, sufficiently protected. The com- narii (the word occurs only in Tacitus) seem to have constituted a regular and distinct part of a British army. (Tacit. Agr. 35 and 36, with M. J. H. Becker's note; Botticher's Lexicon Tacit, s. v.; Becker, Gallus, vol. i. p. 222 ; compare the article essedum.) [L. S.]
CRATER (upar^p: Ionic, Kpyr-fip: Lat. crater or cratera; from /cepawu^ui, I mix), a vessel in which the wine^ according to the custom of the ancients, who very seldom drank it pure, was mixed with water, and from which the cups Avere filled. In the Homeric age the mixture was always made in the dining-room by heralds or young men (Kovpoii see II. iii. p. 269, Od. vii. 182, xxi. 271). The use of the vessel is sufficiently clear from the expressions so frequent in the poems of Homer: KpqTTJpa. /ce^cto-acfflai, i. e. olvov Kal vSap eV KprjTripi (Aiffyziv: iriveiv Rprjrripa. (to empty the crater); KpTjTTJpa <rT^<ra<T0at (cratera statuere, to place the filled crater near the table) ; /cpTjTTjpas eTaaTe^eo-flat Troro'io (to fill the craters to the brim, see Buttmann, Lexil. i. 15). The crater in the Homeric age was generally of silver (Od. ix. 203, x. 356), sometimes with a gold edge (jOd. iv. 616), and sometimes all gold or gilt. (II. xxiii, 219.) It stood upon a tripod, and its ordinary