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of which there are various editions, one of the best by Sim.Van Leeuwen, Amst. 1663, folio ; G. Chr. G ebaueri, cura G. Aug. Spangenberg, Goetting. 1776 •—1797, 2vols. 4to ; Schrader, 1 vol. 4to,' Berlin, 18 32, of which only the Institutes are yet published.
For further information on the editions of the Corpus Juris and its several portions, see Bb'cking, Institutionen,}). 78, &c., and Mackeldey, Le/irbuch, &c.§97,a, 12thed. [G. L,]
CORTFNA, 1. In its primary sense, a large circular vessel for containing liquids, and used in dyeing wool (Plin. H. N. ix. 62), and receiving oil when it first flows from the press. (Cat. De Re Rust. 66.) 2. A vase in which water was carried round the circus during the games (Plaut. Poen. v. 5. 12), for the use of the horses, drivers, or attendants. See the cut on p. 284, in which two of the children thrown down by the horses are furnished with a vessel of this kind. 3. The table or hollow slab, supported by a tripod, upon which the priestess at Delphi sat to deliver her responses; and hence the word is used for the oracle itself. (Virg. Aen. vi. 347.) The Romans made tables of marble or bronze after the pattern of the Delphian tripod, which they used as we do our sideboards, for the purpose of displaying their plate at an entertainment, or the valuables contained in their temples, as is still done in Catholic countries upon the altars. These were termed cortinae Delphicae, or DelpMcae simply. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8 ; Schol. ad hot. Sat. i. 6. 116; Mart. xii. 66. 7; Suet. Aug. 52.) 4. From the conical form of the vessel which contains the first notion of the word, it came also to signify the vaulted part of a theatre over the stage (inagni cortina theatri^ Sever, in Aetn. 294), such as is in the Odeium of Pericles, the shape of which we are expressly told was made to imitate the tent of Xerxes (Paus. i. 20. § 3; Plut. Pericl. 13); and thence metaphorically for anything which bore the appearance of a dome, as the vault of heaven (Ennius, ap. Var. De Ling. Lat. viii. 48, ed. Muller) ; or of a circle, as a group of listeners surrounding any object of at traction. (Tacit. De Orat. 19.) [A. R.]
CORYBANTES (/copgcw/res). The history and explanation of the deities bearing this name, in the early mythology of Greece, cannot be given in this place, as it would lead us to enter into his torical and mythological questions beyond the limits of this Dictionary. The Corybantes, of whom we have to speak here, were the ministers or priests of Rhea or Cybele, the great mother of the gods, who was worshipped in Phrygia. In their solemn festivals they displayed the most extravagant fury in their dances in armour, as well as in the ac companying music of flutes, cymbals and drums. (Strab. x. p. 470.) Hence KopvSavrur^s was the name given to an imaginary disease, in which per sons felt as if some great noise was rattling in their ears. (Plato, Crito, p. 54. d., with Stallbaum's note.) [L. S.J
CORYBANTICA (tcopvgavriKd), a festival and mysteries celebrated at Cnossus in Crete, in commemoration of one Corybas (Strab. x. p. 470.), who, in common with the Curetes, brought up Zeus and concealed him from his father Cronos in that island. Other accounts say that the Corybantes, nine in number, independent of the Curetes, saved and educated Zeus; a third legend (Cic. De Nat. Deor. iii. 23) states that Corybas was the father
of the Cretan Apollo who disputed the sovereignty of the island with Zeus. But to which of these traditions the festival of the Corybantica owed its origin is uncertain, although the first, which was current in Crete itself, seems to be best entitled to the honour. All we know of the Corybantica is, that the person to be initiated was seated on a throne, and that those who initiated him formed a circle and danced around him. This part of the solemnity was called frpovcacris or &po- viff^os. (Plato, Euthydem. p. 277, d.; Dion Chry- sost. Orat. xii. p. 387 ; Proclus, Theol. Plat. vi. 13.) [L. S.]
CORYMBUS. CORY'MBIUM. [coma.]
CORVUS, a sort of crane, used by C. Duilius against the Carthaginian fleet in the battle fought off Mylae, in Sicily (b.c. 260). The Romans, we are told, being unused to the sea, saw that their only chance of victory was by bringing a sea-fight to resemble one on land. For this purpose they invented a machine, of which Polybius (i. 22) has left a minute, although not very perspicuous, de scription. In the fore part of the ship a round pole was fixed perpendicularly, twenty-four feet in height and about nine inches in diameter; at the top of this was a pivot, upon which a ladder was set, thirty-six feet in length and four in breadth. The ladder was guarded by cross-beams, fastened to the upright pole by a ring of wood, which turned with the pivot above. Along the ladder a rope was passed, one end of which took hold of the corvus by means of a ring. The corvus itself was a strong piece of iron, with a spike at the end, which was raised or lowered by drawing in or letting out the rope. When an enemy's ship drew near, the machine was turned outwards, by means of the pivot, in the direction of the assail ant. Another part of the machine which Polybius has not clearly described is a breastwork, let down (as it would seem) from the ladder, and serving as a bridge, on which to board the enemy's vessel. (Compare Curtius, iv. 2. 4.) By means of these cranes the Carthaginian ships were either broken or closely locked with the Roman, and Duilius gained a complete victory.
The word corvus is also applied to various kinds of grappling-hooks, such as the corvus demolitor^ mentioned by Vitravius (x. 19) for pulling down walls, or the terrible engine spoken of by Tacitus (Plist. iv. 30), which being fixed on the walls of a fortified place, and suddenly let down, carried off one of the besieging party, and then by a turn of the machine put him down within the walls. The word is used by Celsus for a scalpel. It is hardly necessary to remark that all these meanings have their origin in the supposed resemblance of the various instruments to the beak of a raven. [B.J.] CORY'TOS. [Ancus, p. 126, a.] v COSME'TAE, a class of slaves among the Romans, whose duty it was to dress and adorn ladies. (Juv. Sat. vi. 476.) Some writers on antiquities, and among them Bottiger in his Sabina (i. 22) have supposed that the cosmetae were female slaves, but the passage of Juvenal is alone sufficient to refute this opinion; for it was not customary for female slaves to take off their tunics when a punishment was to be inflicted upon them. There was, indeed, a class of female slaves who were employed for the same purposes as the cosmetae ; but they were called cosmetriae, a name which Naevius chose as the title for one of his