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CORPUS JURIS CIVILIS.
ties of gold. (Plin. H. N. xxi. 4, xxxiii. 4.) Any crown fastened with these ribbons, whether real or artificially represented, Avas also termed corona lemniscata, a specimen of which is given by Caylus (Recueil d^Antiq. vol. v. pi. 57. No. 3).
III. corona pactilis (Plin. H. N. xxi. 8), probably the same as the corona, plectilis of Plautus (Bacch. i. 1. 37), corona torta (Propert. iii. 20. 18, ed. Kuinoel), plexa (Aul. Gell. xviii. 2), and as the (rrefpdvoi TrAeKroi and /cuAicrrbs erre^ai/os of the Greeks. It was made of flowers, shrubs, grass, ivy, wool, or any flexible material twisted together.
IV. corona sutilis, the crown used by the Salii at their festival. It was made in the first instance of any kind of flowers sowed together, instead of being wreathed with their leaves and stalks; but subsequently it was confined to the rose only, the choicest leaves of which were selected from the whole flower, and sowed together by a skilful hand, so as to form an elegant chaplet. (Plin. H. N. xxi. 8.)
V. corona tonsa or tonsilis (Virg. Aen. v. 556) was made of leaves only, of the olive or laurel for instance (Serv. ad Virg. Georg. iii. 21), and so called in distinction to nexilis and others, in which the whole branch was inserted.
VI. corona radiata (Stat. Theb. i. 28) was the one given to the gods and deified heroes, and assumed by some of the emperors, as a token of their divinity. It may be seen on the coins of Trajan, Caligula, M. Aurelius, Valerius Probus, Theodosius, &c., and is given in the woodcut annexed, from a medal of M. Antonius.
VII. The crown of vine leaves (pampinea) wag appropriated to Bacchus (Hor. Carm. iii. 25. 20, iv. 3. 33), and considered a symbol of ripeness approaching to decay; whence the Roman knight, when he saw Claudius with such a crown upon his head, augured that he would not survive the autumn. (Tacit. Ann. xi. 4 ; compare Artemidor. i. 79.) [A. R.]
CORONIS («o/)wm), the cornice of an entabla ture, is properly a Greek word signifying anything curved (Schol. ad AristopL Pint. 253 ; Hesych. s. v.}. It is also used by Latin writers, but the genuine Latin word for a cornice is corona or coro- nix. (Vitruv. v. 2, 3.) [P. S.]
CORPORATI. CORPORA'TIO. [collegium.]
CORPUS JURIS CIVILIS. The three great compilations of Justinian, the Institutes, the Pandect or Digest, and the Code, together with the Novellae, form one body of law, and were considered as such by the glossatores, who divided it into five
CORPUS JURIS CIVILIS.
volumina. The Digest was distributed into three volumina, under the respective names of Digestum Vetus, Infortiatum, and Digestum Novum. The fourth volume contained the first nine books of the Codex Repetitae Praelectionis. The fifth volume contained the Institutes, the Liber Authenticorum or Novellae, and the three last books of the Codex. The division into five volumina appears in the oldest editions ; but the usual arrangement now is, the Institutes, Digest, the Code, and Novellae. The name Corpus Juris Civilis was not given to this collection by Justinian, nor by any of the glossatores. Savigny asserts that the name was used in the twelfth century: at any rate, it became common from the date of the edition of D. Gothofredus, 1604.
Most editions of the Corpus also contain the following matter : —Thirteen edicts of Justinian, five constitutions of Justin the younger, several constitutions of Tiberius the younger, a series of constitutions of Justinian, Justin, and Tiberius ; 1J 3. Novellae of Leo, a constitution of Zeno, and a number of constitutions of different emperors, under the name of Ba<nAi/ccu Aiardl-ets or Imperatoriae Constitutiones ; the Canones Sanctorum et vene-randorum Apostolorum, Libri Feudorum, a constitution of the emperor Frederick II., two of the emperor Henry VII. called Extravagantes, and a Liber de pace Constantiae. Some editions also contain the fragments of the Twelve Tables, of the praetorian edict, &c.
The Roman law, as received in Europe, consists only of the Corpus Juris, that is, the three compilations of Justinian and the Novellae which were issued after these compilations ; and further, this Corpus Juris is only received within the limits and in the form which was given to it in the school of Bologna. Accordingly, all the Ante-Justinian law is now excluded from all practical application ; also, the Greek texts in the Digest, in the place of which the translations received at Bologna are substituted ; and further, the few unimportant restorations in the Digest, and the more important restorations in the Codex. Of the three collections of Novellae, that only is received which is called Authenticum, and in the abbreviated form which was given to it at Bologna, called the Vulgata.
But, on the other hand, there are received the additions made to the Codex in Bologna by the reception of the Authentica of the Emperors Frederick I. and II., and the still more numerous Authentica of Irnerius. The application of the matter comprised within these limits of the Corpus Juris has not been determined by the school of Bologna, but by the operation of other principles, such as the customary law of different European countries and the development of law. Various titles of the Corpus Juris have little or no application in modern times; for instance, that part of the Roman law which concerns constitutional forms and administration. (Savigny, System des Heut. Romiscken Reclits^ vol. i. p. 66.)
Some editions of the Corpus Juris are published with the glossae, and some without. The latest edition with the glossae is that of J. Fehius, Lugd. 1627, six vols. folio. Of the editions without the glossae, the most important are—that of Russardus, Lugd. 1560—61, folio, which was several times reprinted ; Contius, Lugd. 1571 and 1581,15 vols. 12mo; Lud. Charondae, Antw. ap. Christ. Plantin, 1575, folio ; Dionys. Gothofredi, Lugd. 1583,4to.