The Ancient Library

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merited with the palisades (valli) used in forming an entrenchment, as represented in the annexed woodcut. (Guichard. De Antiq. Triumph, p. 26/3.)

VI. corona triumphal is. There were three sorts of triumphal crowns, the first of which was worn round the head of the commander during his triumph. It was made with laurel or bay leaves (Aul, Gell. v. 6 ; Ovid. Pont. ii. 2. 81 ; Tibull. i. 7- 7), which plant is frequently met with on the ancient coins, both with the berries and without them. It was the latter kind, according to Pliny (H. N. xv. 29), which was used in the triumph, as is shown in the annexed woodcut, from a medal which commemorates the Parthian triumph of Ventidius, the lieutenant of Antony. Being the most honourable of the three, it was termed laurea insignis (Liv. vii. 13) and insignis corona triumpli-alis.



which happened when the war was not duly de­clared, or was carried on against a very inferior force, or with persons not considered by the laws of nations as lawful enemies, such as slaves and pirates ; or when the victory was obtained without danger, difficulty, or bloodshed (Aul. Gell. v. 6 ; Festus, s. v. Ovalis Corona) ; .on which account it was made of myrtle, the shrub sacred to Venus, " Quod non Martins, sed quasi V&neris quidam triumphus foret." (Aul. Gell. I.e. ; Plut. Marcell. 22 ; compare Plin. H.N. xv. 39 ; Dionys. v. 47.) The myrtle crown is shown in the woodcut an­nexed, from a medal of Augustus Caesar.

The second one was of gold, often enriched with jewels, which being too large and massive to be worn, was held over the head of the general during his triumph, by a public officer (servus publicus, Juv. Sat. x. 41). This crown, as well as the former one, was presented to the victorious general by his army.

The third kind, likewise of gold and great value, was sent as presents from the provinces to the commander, as soon as a triumph had been decreed to him (Plut. Aemil. Paul. 34), and there­fore they were also termed provinciales. (Tertull. De Ooron. Mil. c. 13.) In the early ages of the republic, these were gratuitous presents, but sub­sequently they were exacted as a tribute under the name of aurum coronarium, to which none were entitled but those to whom a triumph had been decreed. The custom of presenting golden crowns from the provinces to victorious generals was like­wise in use among the Greeks, for they were pro­fusely lavished upon Alexander after his conquest of Bareius (Athen. xii. p. 539, a) ; and the Romans probably borrowed the custom from the Greeks. [aurum coronarium.]

VII. corona 0 valis was another crown of less estimation, appropriated solely to commanders. It was given to those who merely deserved an ovation,

VIII. corona oleagina. This was likewise an honorary wreath, made of the olive leaf, and conferred upon the soldiers as well as their com­manders. According to Gellius (v. 6), it was given to any person or persons through whose instru­mentality a triumph had been obtained, but when they were not personally present in the action. It is represented in the next woodcut, from a medal of Lepidus, and was conferred both by Augustus and the senate upon the soldiery on several occasions. (Dion Cass. xiix. 14, xlvi. 40.)

Golden crowns, without any particular designa­tion, were frequently presented out of compliment by one individual to another, and by a general to a soldier who had in any way distinguished him­self. (Liv. vii. 10, 37, x. 44, xxx. 15.)

The Greeks in general made but little use of crowns as rewards of valour in the earlier and better periods of their history, except as prizes in the athletic contests ; but previous to the time of Alexander, crowns of gold were profusely distri­buted among the Athenians at least, for every trifling feat, whether civil, naval, or military (Aesch. c. CtesipJi.; Dem. De Coron. passim\ which, though lavished without much discrimina­tion as far as regards the character of the receiving

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