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him that deference which he would be compelled to pay to his preserver if the claim were established. (Cic. Pro Plane. 30.) Originally, therefore, the corona civica was presented by the rescued soldier (Aul. Gell. v. 6 ; Polyb. vi. 37), after the claim had been thoroughly investigated by the tribune who compelled a reluctant party to came forward and give his evidence (Polyb. I. e.) ; but under the empire, when the prince was the fountain from whence all honours emanated, the civic crown was no longer received from the hands of the person whose preservation it rewarded, but from the prince himself or his delegate. (Tacit. Ann. xv. 12 ; compare iii. 2.)

The preservation of the life of an ally, even though he were a king, would not confer a suffi­cient title for the civic crown. When once ob­tained, it might always be worn. The soldier who had acquired it, had a place reserved next to the senate at all the public spectacles ; and they, as well as the rest of the company .rose up upon his entrance. He was freed from ^11 public burthens, as were also his father, and his paternal grand­father ; and the person who owed his life to him was bound, ever after, to cherish his preserver as a parent, and afford him all such offices as were due from a son i© his father. (Polyb. vi. 37 ; Cic. Pro Piano. 30 ; Plin. H.N. xvi. 5 ; Aul. Gell. v. 6.)

A few of the principal persons who gained this reward, are enumerated in the following pas­sages : —Plin. H. N. vii. 29, xvi. 5 ; Liv. vi. 20 ; x. 46. L. Gellius Publicola proposed to confer it upon Cicero for having detected and crushed the conspiracy of Catiline (Aul. Gell. v. 6) ; and among the honours bestowed upon Augustus by the senate, it was decreed that a civic crown should be sus­pended from the top of his house (Dion Cass. liii. 16 ; Val. Max. ii. 8. fin. ; Ovid. Fast. i. 614, iv. 953, Trist. iii. 1. 6 ; Senec. Clem. i. 26 ; Suet. Calig. 19, compare Claud. 17, Tib. 26) ; hence a crown of oak leaves, with the inscription ob cives servatos, is frequently seen on the reverse of the Augustan medals, as also on those of Galba, Vi-tellius, Vespasian, Trajan, &c., showing that they likewise assumed to themselves a similar honour.

III. corona navalis or rostrata, called also classic A. (Veil. Pat. ii. 81.) It is difficult to determine whether these were two distinct crowns, or only two denominations for the same one. Virgil (Aen. viii. 684) unites both terms in one sentence, " Tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." But it seems probable that the former, besides being a generic term, was inferior in dignity to the latter, and given to the sailor who first boarded an enemy's ship (Plin. H. N. xvi. 3) ; whereas the latter was given to a commander who destroyed the whole fleet, or gained any very signal victory. M. Agrippa is said to have been the first person who received the honour of a naval crown, which was conferred upon Mm on his con­quest of Sex. Pompeius in b. c. 3£ ; though, ac­cording to other authorities, M. Varro was the first who obtained it from Pompeius Magnus. (Comp. Veil. Pat. 1. c. ; Liv. Epit. 129 ; Dion Cass. xlix. 14; Auj[. Gell. v. (? ; Senec. De Ben. iii. 32 ; Festus, s.v. Navalis Corona; Plin. H.N. viii. 31, xvi. 4; Suet Claud. 17.) At all events, they were both made of gold ; and one at least (rostrata) decorated with the beaks of ships like the rostra in the forum (Plin. xvi. 4), as seen in a medal of Agrippa ; the other (namli,s\ with a representation



of the entire bow, as shown in the subjoined wood-1 (Guichard. De Antiq. Triumph, p. 267.)

The Athenians likewise bestowed golden crowns for naval services ; sometimes upon the person who got his trireme first equipped, and at others upon the captain who had his vessel in the best order. (Dem. dq Coron. Praef. Nav. pp. 278, 279. ed. Schaeffe.r.)

IV. corona muralis. The first man who scaled the wall of a besieged city was presented by his commander with a mural crown. (Aul. GelL v. 6. 4 ; Liv. xxvi. 48.) It was made of gold, and decorated with turrets (muri pinnis, Aul. Gell. I. c.Jj as represented in the next woodcut (Guichard De Antiq. Triumph, p. 265) ; and being one of the highest orders of military decorations, was not awarded to a claimant until after a strict investi­gation. (Liv. L c. ; compare .Suet. Aug.. 25.)

Cybele is always -represented with this crown upon her head (Lucret. ii. 607, 610 ; Ovid. Fast. iv. 219 ; compare Virg. Aen. x. 253, vi. 786) ; but in the woodcut annexed (Caylus, Recueil d? Antiq. vol. v. pi. 3) the form of the crown is very remarkable, for it includes the whole tower as well as the turrets, thus affording a curious specimen of the ancient style of fortification.

V. €orona castrensis or vallaris. The first soldier who surmounted the vallum, and forced an entrance into the enemy's camp, was, in like manner, presented with a golden crown, called corona .eastrensis or vallaris (Aul. Gell. v. 6 j compare Val. Max. i. 8. § 6), which was .orna-

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