The Ancient Library

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On vases, however, we most frequently find the heads of females covered with a kind of band or a coif of net-work. Of these coiffures one was called crfyevdSi/r}, which was a broad band across the fore­head, sometimes made of metal, and sometimes of leather, adorned with gold: to this the name of (rrKsyyis was also given, and it appears to have been much the same as the ^tti;| (Pollux, vii. 179 ; Bbttiger, Vasengemtilde, iii. p. 225 ; ampyx). But the most common kind of head-dress for females was called by the general name of KGKpv-<£aAos, and this was divided into the three species of KeKpi><j)a\os, (ra/c/cos, and yUirpct. The KSKpu-tf>a\os, in its narrower sense, was a caul or coif of net-work, corresponding to the Latin reticulum. It was worn during the day as well as the night, and has continued in use from the most ancient times to the present day. It is mentioned by Homer (II. xxii. 469), and is still worn in Italy and Spain. These hair-nets were frequently made of gold-threads (Juv. ii. 96 ; Petron. 67), sometimes

of silk (Salmas. Eocerc. ad Solin. p. 3.92), or the Elean byssus (Paus. vii. 21. § 7), and probably of other materials, which are not mentioned by ancient writers. The persons who made these nets were called K€Kpv<paXoTrX6KOt (Pollux, vii. 179). Females with this kind of head-dress fre­quently occur in paintings found at Pompeii, from one of which the preceding cut is taken, represent­ing a woman wearing a Coa Vestis. [Coa vestis.] (Museo Borlon. vol. viii. p. 5.)

The (tolkkos and the fdrpa were, on the con­trary, made of close materials. The crdKKos covered the head entirely like a sack or bag ; it was made of various materials, such as silk, byssus, and wool. (Comp. Aristoph. Tltcsin. 257.) Some­times, at least among the Romans, a bladder was used to answer the same purpose. (Mart. viii. 33. 19.) The fJiiTpa. was a broad band of cloth of different colours, which was wound round the hair, and was worn in various ways. It was originally an Eastern head-dress, and may, there­fore, be compared to the modern turban. It is sometimes spoken of as characteristic of the Phry­gians. (Herod, i. 195, vii. 62 ; Virg. Aen. ix. 616, 617 ; Juv. iii. 66.) It was, however, also worn by the Greeks, and Polygnotus is said to have been the first who painted Greek women with mitrae (Plin. //. N. xxxv. 9. s. 35). The Roman calantica or calvatica is said by Servius (ad Virg, Aen. ix. 616) to have been the same as the mitra, but in a passage in the Digest (34. tit. 2. s. 25. § 10) they are mentioned as if they were distinct. In the annexed cut, taken from Millin (Peintures de Vases Antiques, vol. ii. pi. 43), the female on the right hand wears a <ra/c/cos and that on the left a

With respect to the colour of the hair, black was the most frequent, but blonde (^avB^ kojutj) was the most prized. In Homer, Achilles, Ulys-. ses, and other heroes are represented with blonde hair (II. i. 197, Od. xiii. 399, &c.) At a later time it seems to have been not unfrequent to dye hair, so as to make it either black or blonde, and this was done by men as well as by women, espo-cially when the hair was growing gray. (Pollux, ii. 35 ; Aelian, V. //. vii. 20 ; Athen. xii. p. 542, d. ; Lucian, Amor. 40.)

roman. Besides the generic coma we also find the following words signifying the hair: ca-

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