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COLUMNA.

\\hich spring generally two rows of acanthus leaves, surmounted at each corner by a small volute, the spaces between the volutes being oc­cupied by flowers, masks, or arabesques, or by an­other pair of volutes intertwining with each other. In the earlier examples, however, there is fre­quently only one row of acanthus leaves ; and in the so-called Tower of the Winds the volutes are wanting, and the capital consists only of an astragal, a single row of acanthus leaves, and a row of tongue-shaped leaves. In all the examples, except the last-menaoned, the abacus, instead of being square, as in the other orders, is hollowed at the edges, and the middle of each edge is orna­mented with a flower. The ornaments of the capital were sometimes cast in bronze. The order seems to have been invented about the time of the .Peloponnesian War; but it did not come into general use till some time afterwards. The earliest knoAvn example of its use throughout a building is in the choragic monument of Lysicrates, which was built in b.c. 335 (see Diet, of Biog. art. Lysicrates), and from which the following engraving is taken.

327

COLUMNA.

To these three orders the Roman architects added two others, which have, however, no claim to be considered as distinct orders. The Tuscan is only known to us by the description of Vitru-vius, as no ancient example of it has been pre­served. It was evidently nothing more than a modification of the Roman Doric, stripped of its ornaments. The Roman or Composite Order is only a sort of mongrel of the Corinthian and Ionic; the general character being Corinthian, except that the upper part of the capital is formed of an Ionic capital with angular volutes: and both capital and entablature are overloaded with orna­ments. The engraving is from the triumphal arch of Titus, which is considered the best example.

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For further details respecting the orders and their supposed history, see the 3d and 4th books of Vitruvius, the work of Mauch, and Stieglitz's Arcliaologie der Baukunst.

It only remains to mention seme other uses of columns, besides their ordinary employment for supporting buildings either within or without.

Columns in long rows were used to convey water in aqueducts (Crates, ap. Atlien. vi. 94) ; and single pillars were fixed in harbours for moor­ing ships. (Of/, xxii. 466.) Some of these are found yet standing.

Single columns were also erected to commemo­rate persons or events. Among these, some of the most remarkable were the columnae rostratae, called by that name because three ship-beaks pro­ceeded from each side of them, and designed to record successful engagements at sea (Virg. Georg. iii. 29 ; Serving, ad foe.). The most important and celebrated of thoss which yet remain, is one erected in honour of the consul C. Duillius, on occasion of his victory over the Carthaginian fleet, B. c. 261 (see the annexed woodcut). It was originally placed in the forum (Plin. //. N. xxxiv. 1J), and is now preserved in the museum of the

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