Scanned text contains errors.
each of the principal orders of ancient architecture. The first is from a column of the Parthenon at Athens, the capital of which is shown on a larger scale at p. 1. The second is from the temple of Bacchus at Teos, the capital of which is introduced at p. 144. The third is from the remains of the temple of Jupiter at Labranda.
In all the orders the shaft (scapzis) tapers from the Bottom towards the top, thus imitating the natural form of the trunk of a tree, and at the same time conforming to a general law in regard to the attainment of strength and solidity in all-upright bodies. The shaft was, however, made •with a slight swelling in the middle, which was called the entasis. It was. moreover, almost universally, and from the earliest times, channelled, or fluted, i. e. the outside was striped with incisions parallel to.the axis. (Vitruv. iv. 4.) These incisions, called striae, were always worked with extreme regularity. The section of them by a plane parallel to the base was, in the Ionic and Corinthian orders, a semicircle ; in the Doric, it was an arc much less than a semicircle. Their number was 20 in the columns of the Parthenon, above represented ; in other instances, 24, 28, or 32.
The capital was commonly wrought out of one 'block of stone, the shaft consisting of several cylindrical pieces fitted to one another. When the column was erected, its component parts were firmly joined together, not by mortar or cement, but by iron cramps fixed in the direction of the axis. The annexed woodcut is copied from an engraving in Swinburne's Tour in the Two Sicilies (vol. ii. p. 301), and represents a Doric column, which has been thrown prostrate in such a manner as to show the capital lying separate, and the five drums of the shaft, each four feet long, with the holes for the iron cramps by which they were united together.
Columns of an astonishing size were nevertheless erected, in which the shaft was one piece of stone. For this purpose it was hewn in the quarry into the requisite form (Virg. Aen. i. 428), and was then rolled over the ground, or moved by the aid of various mechanical contrivances, and by immense labour, to the spot where it was to be set up. The mausoleum of the Emperor Hadrian, a circular building of such dimensions that it serves as the fortress of modern Rome, was surrounded by forty-eight lofty and most beautiful Corinthian pillars, the shaft of each pillar being a single piece of marble. About the time of Constantine, some of these were taken to support the interior of a church dedicated to St. Paul, which a few years ago was destroyed by fire. The interest attached to the working and erection of these noble columns, the undivided shafts of which consisted of the most valuable and splendid materials, led mu-
nificent individuals to employ their Wealth in presenting them to public structures. Thus Croesus contributed the greater part of the pillars to the temple at Ephesus. (Herod, i. 92.) In the ruins at Labranda, now called Jackly, in Caria, tablets in front of the columns record the names of the donors, as is shown in the specimen of them above exhibited.
Columns were used in the interior of buildings, to sustain the beams which supported the ceiling. As both the beams and the entire ceiling were often of stone or marble, which could riot be obtained in pieces of so great a length as wood, the columns were in such circumstances frequent in proportion, not being more than about ten or twelve feet apart. The opisthodomos of the Parthenon of Athens, as appears from traces in the remaining ruins, had four columns to support the ceiling. A common arrangement, especially in buildings of an oblong form, was to have two rows of columns parallel to the two sides, the distance from each side to the next row of columns being less than the distance between the rows themselves. This construction was adopted not only in temples, but in palaces (olkdl). The great hall of the palace of Ulysses in Ithaca, that of the king of the Phaeacians, and that of the palace of Hercules at Thebes (Eurip. Here. Fur. 975—1013), are supposed to have been thus constructed, the seats of honour both for the master and mistress, and for the more distinguished of their guests, being at the foot of certain pillars. (Od. vi. 307, viii. 66. 473, xxiii. 90.) In these regal halls of the Homeric era, we are also led to imagine the pillars decorated with arms. When Telemachus enters his father's hall, he places his spear against a column, and " within the polished spear-holder," by which we must understand one of the striae or channels of the shaft. (Od. i. 127—129, xvii. 29 ; Virg. Aen. xii, 92.) Around the base of the columns, near the entrance, all the warriors of the family were accustomed to incline their spears ; and from the upper part of the same they suspended their bows and quivers on nails or hooks. (Hoin. Hymn, in Ap. 8.) The minstrel's lyre hung upon its peg. from another column nearer the top of the room. (Od. viii. 67 ; Pind. Ol. i. 17.) The columns of the hall were also made subservient to less agreeable uses. Criminals were tied to them in order to be scourged, or otherwise tormented. (Soph. Ajax, 108 ; Lobeck ad loc. ; Diog. Laert. viii. 21 ; Hesiod, Theog. 521.) According to the description in the Odyssey, the beams of the hall of Ulysses were of silver-fir ; in such a case, the apartment might be very spacious without being overcrowded with columns. (Od. xix. 38, xxii. 176,193.)
Rows of columns were often employed within a building, to enclose a space open to the sky. Beams supporting ceilings passed from above the columns to the adjoining walls, so as to form covered passages or ambulatories (cttocu). Such a circuit of columns was called a peristyle (Trept-(TTvXov)^ and the Roman atrium was built upon this plan. The largest and most splendid temples enclosed an open space like an atrium, which was accomplished by placing one peristyle upon another. In such cases, the lower rows of columns being Doric, the upper were sometimes Ionic or Corinthian, the lighter being properly based upon the heavier. (Pans. viii. 45. § 4.) A-temple so con-