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tbe passing of the Lex Julia, which gave the civitas to the socii and the Latin colonies, the object of establishing Roman and Latin colonies

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ceased ; and military colonies were thenceforward settled in Italy, and, under the emperors, in the provinces. (Plin. Nut. Hist iii. 4.) These military colonies had the civitas, such as it then was ; but their internal organisation might be various.

The following references, in addition to those already given, will direct -the reader to abundant sources of information : — (Sigonius, De Jure, An- tiquo, &c. ; Niebuhr, Roman History; Savigny, Ueher das Jus Italicum, Zeitschr. vol. v. ; Tabulae Ileracleenses. Af«2ro6'//.z,-Neap. 1754 ; Savigny, Der liomisc/ie Volksschluss der Tafel von Heraclea; and Rudorff, Ueber die Lex Mamilia de Coloniis, Zeitschr. vol. ix. ; Rudorif, Das Ackergesetz von Sp. Tharms, and Pitch ta, Ueher den Inhalt der Lex Rubria de Gallia Cisalpina, Zeitschr. vol. x. ; Beaufort, Rep. Rom. v. p. 273—308 ; Madvig, Opuscula, De Jure et Conditione Coloniarum Populi Romani^ Hauniae, 1834 ; Zumpt, Ueber den Unterschied der Benennungen, Municipium, Colonia, Praefectura, Berlin, 1840.) [G. L.]

COLO RES. The Greeks and Romans had a very extensive acquaintance with colours as pigments. Book vii. of Vitruvius and several chapters of books xxxiii. xxxiv. and xxxv. of Pliny's Natural History, contain much interesting-matter upon their nature and composition ; and these works, together with what is contained in book v. of Dioscorides, and some remarks in Theophrastus {De Lapidibus), constitute the whole of our information of any importance upon the subject of ancient pigments. From these sources, through the experiments and observations of Sir Humphry Davy {Phil. Trans. of the Royal Society, 1815) on some remains of ancient colours and paintings in the baths of Titus and of Livia, and in other ruins of antiquity, we are enabled to col­lect a tolerably satisfactory account of the colour­ing materials employed by the Greek and Roman painters.

The painting of the Greeks is very generally considered to have been inferior to their sculpture; this partially arises from very imperfect inform­ation, and a very erroneous notion respecting the resources of the Greek painters in colouring; The error originated apparently with Pliny himself, who says (xxxv. 32), " Quatuor coloribus solis immortalia ilia opera fecere, ex albis Melino, ex silaceis Attico, ex rubris Sinopide Pontica, ex nigris atramento, Apelles, Echion, Melanthius, Necomachus^ clarissimi pictores;" and (xxxv. 36), *' Legentes meminerint omnia ea quatuor coloribus facta." This mistake, as Sir H. Davy has sup­posed, may have arisen from an imperfect recollec­tion of a passage in Cicero {Brutus, c. 18), which, however, directly contradicts the statement of

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Pliny:—-"In pictura Zeuxim et Polygnotum, et Timanthem, et eorum, qui non sunt usi plusquam quattuor coloribus, formas et lineamenta laudamus: at in Echione, Nicomacho, Protogene, Apelle jam pe'rfecta sunt omnia.1' Heie Cicero extols the design and drawing of Polygnotus, Zeuxis, and Timanthes, and those who used but four colours; and observes in contradistinction, that in Echion, IS1 ieomachus, Protogenes, and Apelles, all things were perfect. But the remark of Pliny, that Apelles, Echion, Melanthius, and Nicomachus used but four colours, including both black and white


to the exclusion of all blue (unless we understand by " ex nigris atramento " black and indigo), is evidently an error, independent of its contradiction to Cicero ; and the conclusion drawn by some from it and the remark of Cicero, that the early Greek painters were acquainted with but four pigments, is equally without foundation. Pliny himself speaks of two other colours, besides the four in question, which were used by the earliest painters; the testa-trita (xxxv. 5) and cinnabaris or vermilion, which he calls also minium (xxxiii. 36). He mentions also (xxxv. 21) the Eretrian earth used by Nicomachus, and the elephantinum, or ivory-black, used by Apelles (xxxv. 25), thus contra­dicting himself when he asserted that Apelles and Nicomachus used but four colours. The above tradition, and t\\e simplex color tf Quintilian (Orat. Instit. xii. 10), are our only authorities for defining any limits to the use of colours by the early Greeks, as applied to painting f but we have no authority whatever for supposiug that they were limited in any remarkable way in their acquaintance with them. That the painters of the earliest period had not such abundant resources in this depart­ment of art as those of the later, is quite consistent with experience, and does not require demonstra­tion ; but to suppose that they were confined to four pigments is quite a gratuitous . supposition, and is opposed to both reason and evidence. [ pictura.]

Sir H. Davy also analysed the colours- of the so-called " Aldobrandini marriage," all the reds and yellows of which he discovered to be ochres ; the blues and greens, to be oxides of copper ; the blacks all carbonaceous ; the browns, mixtures of ochres and black, and some containing oxide of the whites were all carbonates of

manganese ;


The reds discovered in an earthen vase contain­ing a variety of colours, were, red oxide of lead {minium}, and two iron ochres of different tints, a dull red, and a purplish red nearly of the same tint as prussiate of copper ; they were all mixed with chalk or carbonate of lime. The yellows were pure ochres with carbonate of lime, and ochre mixed with minium and carbonate of lime. The blues were oxides of copper with carbonate of lime. Sir H. Davy discovered a frit made by means of soda and coloured with oxide of copper, approaching ultramarine in tint, which he sup­posed to be the frit of Alexandria ; its composition, he says, was perfect —" that of embodying the colour in a composition resembling stone, so as to prevent the escape of elastic matter from it, or the decomposing action of the elements ; this is a species of artificial lapis lazuli, the colouring matter of which is naturally inherent in a hard siliceous stone."

Of greens there \vere many shades, all, however, either carbonate or oxide of copper, mixed with carbonate of lime. The browns consisted of ochres calcined, and oxides of iron and of manganese, and compounds of ochres and blacks. Sir H. Davy could not ascertain whether the lake which he dis­covered was of animal or of vegetable origin ; if of animal, he supposed that it was very probably the Tyrian or marine purple. He discovered also a colour which he supposed to" be black wad, or hydrated binoxide of manganese ; also a black colour composed of chalk, mixed with the ink of the sepia ofti emails or cuttle-fish. The transparent

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