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for the extension and pernianence of her colonial settlements. His principal object was to provide for the redundancies of population, and raise the poorer citizens to a fortune becoming the dignity of Athenian citizens. It was of this class of persons the settlers were chiefly composed; the state provided them with arms, and defrayed the expenses of their journey. The principle of divi­sion, doubtless, was, that all who wished to par­take in the adventure, applied voluntarily ; it was then determined by lot who should or should not receive a share. Sometimes they had a leader ap­pointed, who, after death, received all the honours of the founder of a colony (ot/acrT^s).

The Cleruchiae were lost by the battle of Aegos-potami, but partially restored on the revival of Athenian power.

(Spanheim, De Usu et Numism. vol. i. p. 55.9, &c. ; Bougainville, Quels etoient les droits des mitropoles Grecques sur les colonies, <#c., Paris, i745 ; Heyne, De Veterum Coloniarum Jure ejusque Causis, Gott. 1766, also in Opuscula, vol. i. p. 290; Sainte Croix, De VEtat et du Sort des Colonies desanciens Peuples, Philadelphie, 1779; Hegewisch, Geogr. und Hist. Nachrichten, die Colonien der Griechen betreffend, Altona, 1808 ; Raoul-Rochette, Histoire critique de PEtablissement des Colonies Greeques, Paris, 1815, 4' vols. ; Wichers, De Coloniis Veterum, Groningae, 1825 ; Pfefferkorn, Die Colonien der Att-Griechen, Kb'nigsberg, 1838 ; Hermann, Lehrbuch der Gricch. Staatsalth. § 73. &c.; Wachsmuth, Hellen. Alterthumsk. vol. i. p. 95, 2nd ed.; Schomann, Antiq. Juris Publici Graec. p. 414. Sec.; Bb'ckh, Public Econ. of Athens, p. 424, &c.) ^ ^ [B. J.]

2. roman. The word colonia contains the same element as the verb colere, " to cultivate," and as the word colonus, which probably originally signified a " tiller of the earth." The English word colony, which is derived from the Latin, perhaps expresses the notion contained in this word more nearly than is generally the case in such adopted terms.

A kind of colonisation seems to have existed among the oldest Italian nations, who, on certain occasions, sent out their superfluous male popu­lation, with arms in their hands (lepa veorf\s}, to seek for a new home. (Dionys. Antiq. Rom. i. 16.) But these were apparently mere bands of adven­turers, and such colonies rather resembled the old Greek colonies, than those by which Rome ex­tended her dominion and her name.

Colonies were established by the Romans as far back as the annals or traditions of the city extend, and the practice was continued during the republic and under the empire. Sigonius (De Antiquo. Jure Italiae, p. 215, &c.) enumerates six main causes or reasons which, from time to time, induced the Romans to send out colonies ; and these causes are connected with many memorable events in Roman history. Colonies were intended to keep in check a conquered people, and also to repress hostile incursions, as in the case of the colony of Narnia (Liv. x. 10), which was founded to check the Umbri ; and Minttirnae and Sinuessa (x. 21), Cremona and Placentia (xxvii. 46), which were founded for similar purposes. Cicero (De Leg. Ayr. ii. 27) calls the old Italian colonies the *4 propugnacula imperii ;" and in another passage (Pro Font. c. 1) he calls Narbo Martins (Nar-bonne), which was in the provincia Gallia, " Co­lonia nostroram civium, specula populi Romani et


propugnaculum." Another object was to increase the power of Rome by increasing the population. (Liv. xxvii. 9.) Sometimes the immediate object of a colony was to carry off a number of turbulent and discontented persons. Colonies were also established for the purpose of providing for veteran soldiers, a practice which was begun under the republic (Liv. xxxi. 4), and continued under the emperors: these coloniae were called militares.

It is remarked by Strabo (p. 216. ed. Casaub.), when speaking of the Roman colonies in the north of Italy, that the ancient names of the places were retained, and that though the people in his time were all Roman, they were called by the names of the previous occupiers of the soil. This fact is in accordance with the character of the old Roman colonies, which were in the nature of garrisons planted in conquered towns, and the colonists had a portion of the conquered t'Tritory (usually a third part) assigned to them. The inhabitants retained the rest of their lands, and lived together with the new settlers, who alone composed the proper co­lony. (Dionys. Antiq. Rom. ii. 53.) The conquered people must at first have been quite a distinct class from, and inferior to, the colonists. The definition of a colonia by Gellius (xvi. 13) will appear, from what has been said, to be sufficiently exact: — " Ex civitate quasi propagatae — populi Romani quasi effigies parvae simulacraque."

No colonia was established without a lex, ple-biscitum, or senatusconsultum ; a fact which shows that a Roman colony was never a mere body of adventurers, but had a regular organisation by the parent state. According to an ancient definition quoted by Niebuhr (Serv. ad Virg. A en. i. 12), a colony is a body of citizens, or socii, sent out to possess a commonwealth, with the approbation of their own state, or by a public act of that people to whom they belong ; and it is added, those are colonies which are founded by public act, not by any secession. Many of the laws which relate to the establishment of coloniae were leges agrariae, or laws for the division and assignment of public lands, of which Sigonius has given a list in his work already referred to.

When a law was passed for founding a colony, persons were appointed to superintend its forma­tion (coloniam deducere). These persons varied in number, but three was a common number (trium­viri ad colonos deducendos, Liv. xxxvii. 46, vi. 21). We also read of duumviri, quinqueviri, vigintiviri for the same purpose. The law fixed the quantity of land that was to be distributed, and how much was to be assigned to each person. No Roman could be sent out as a colonist without his free consent, and when the colony was not an inviting one, it was difficult to fill up the number of volun­teers. (Liv. vi. 21, x. 21.)

Roman citizens who were willing to go out as members of a colony gave in their names at Rome (nomina dederunt, Liv. i. 11, the first time that he has occasion to use the expression). Cicero (Pro Dom. c. 30) says that Roman citizens who chose to become members of a Latin colony must go vo­luntarily (auctores facti\ for this was a capitis deminutio ; and in another passage (Pro Caecin. 33) he alleges the fact of Roman citizens going out in Latin colonies as a proof that loss of civitas must be a voluntary act. It is true that a mem er of a Roman colony would sustain no capitis de-iOj but in this case also there seems no reason

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