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On this page: Cochle Ar – Cochlis – Codex – Codex Gregorianus – Codex Justinianeus

CODEX.

8. A peculiar kind of door, through which the wild beasts passed from their dens into the arena of the amphitheatre. (Varr. De Re Rust. iii. 5. § 3.) It consisted of a circular cage, open on one side like a lantern, which worked upon a pivot and within a shell, like the machines used in the convents and foundling hospitals of Italy, termed rofe, so that any particular beast could be removed from its den into the arena merely by turning it round, and without the possibility of more than one escaping at the same time ; and therefore it is recommended by Varro (/. c.) as peculiarly adapted for an aviary, so that the person could go in and out without affording the birds an opportunity of flying away. Schneider (in Ind. Script. R. R. s. v. Cavea), however, maintains that the cochlea in question was nothing more than a portcullis (cata- phracta} raised by a screw, which interpretation does not appear so probable as the one given above. [A. R.]

COCHLE AR (/co%?uc£/>ioy) was a kind of spoon, which appears to have terminated with a point at one end, and at the other was broad and hollow like our own spoons. The pointed end was used for drawing snails (cochleae) out of their shells, and eating them, whence it derived its name ; and the broader part for eating eggs, &c. Martial (xiv. 121) mentions both these uses of the cochlear,— *' Sum cochleis habilis nee sum minus utilis ovis." (Compare Plin. H. N. xxviii. 4 ; Petron. 33.)

Cochlear was also the name given to a small measure like our spoonful. According to Rhemnius Fannius, it was -^ of the cyathus.

COCHLIS, which is properly a diminutive of cochlea, is used as an adjective with columna, to describe such columns as the Trajan and An-tonine ; but whether the term was used with re­ference to the spiral staircase within the column, or to the spiral bas-relief on the outside, or to both, cannot be said with certainty. (P. Vict. de Region. Urb. Rom. 8, 9.)

Pliny applies the word also to a species of gem found in Arabia. (PI. JV. xxxvii. 12. s.74.) [P. S.]

CODEX, dim. CODIClLLUS,is identical with caudex.> as Claudius and Clodius, claustrum and clostrum^ cauda and coda. Cato (ap. Front. Epist. ad M. Anton. i. 2) still used the form caudex in the same sense in which afterwards codex was used exclusively. (Compare Ovid. Metam. xii. 432.) The word originally signified the trunk or stem of a tree (Virg. Georg. ii. 30 ; Columella, xii. 19 ; Plin. H. N. xvi. 30), and was also applied to designate anything composed of large pieces of wood, whence the small fishing or ferry boats on the Tiber, which may originally have been like the Indian canoes, or were constructed of several roughly hewn planks nailed together in a rude and simple manner, were called naves caudicariae, or codicariae, or caudiceae. (Fest. and Varro, ap. Nonium, xiii. 12 ; Gellius, x. 25.)- The surname of Caudex given to Appius Claudius must be traced to this signification. But the name codex was especially applied to wooden tablets bound together and lined with a coat of wax, for the purpose of writing upon them, and When, at a later age, parchment or paper, or other materials were substituted for wood, and put together in the shape of a book, the name of codex was still ap­plied to them. (Cic. Verr. ii. 1, 36 ; Dig. 32. tit. 1. s. 52; Sueton. Aug. 101.) In the time of Cicero

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CODEX.

we find it also applied to the tablet on which a bill was written; and the tribune, Cornelius, when one of his colleagues forbade his bill to be read by the herald or scribe, read it himself (legit codicem mum; see Cic. in Vat. 2, and Ascon. Ped. in Argum. ad Cornel, p. 58. ed. Orelli). At a still later period, during the time of the emperors, the word was used to express any collection of laws or constitutions of the emperors, whether made by private individuals or by public authority. See the following articles.

The diminutive codiciUns, or rather codicilli, was used much in the same way as codex. It originally signified tablets of the kind described above, and was subsequently employed to indicate any small book or document, made either of parchment or paper. (Cic. Phil. viii. 10, ad Fam. vi. 18; Suet. Claud. 29.) Respecting its meaning in connec­ tion with a person's testament, see testamen- tum. [L. S.]

CODEX GREGORIANUS and HERMO- GENLA/NUS. It does not appear quite certain if this title denotes one collection or two collec­ tions. The general opinion, however, is, that there were two codices compiled respectively by Grego- rianus and Hermogenianus, who are sometimes, though incorrectly, called Gregorius and Hermo- genes. The codex of Gregorianus was divided into books (the number of which is not known), and the books were divided into titles. The fragments of this codex begin with constitutions of Septiniius Severus, a. d. 196, and end with those of Diocletian and Maximian, A. d. 285—305. The codex of Hermogenianus, so far as we know it, is only quoted by titles, and it only contains constitutions of Diocletian and Maximian, with the exception of one by Antoninus Caracalla ; it may perhaps have consisted of one book only, and it may 'have been a kind of supplement to the other. The name Her­ mogenianus is always placed after that of Gregori­ anus when this code is quoted. According to the Consitltationes, the codex of Hermogenianus also contained constitutions of Valens and Valentinian II., which, if true, would bring down the compiler to a time some years later than the reign of Con- stantine the Great, under whom it is generally as­ sumed that he lived. These codices were not made by imperial authority ; they were the work of private individuals, but apparently soon came to be considered as authority in courts of justice, as is shown indirectly by the fact of the Theodosian and Justinian codes being formed on the model of the Codex Gregorianus and Hermogenianus. (Zim- mero, Geschichte des Romischen Privatrcchls, Heidel. 1826; Hugo, Lehrbuch der GescldclitQ des Rom. Rechts, Berlin, 1832; Frag. Cod. Greg. et Herm. in Schulting's Jurisprudentia Vet. Sic., and in the Jits Civile Antejustin. Berol. 1815 ; Booking, In" stitutionen.} [G. L.]

CODEX JUSTINIANEUS. In February of the year a. d. 528, Justinian appointed a commis­sion, consisting of ten persons, to make a new col­lection of imperial constitutions. Among these ten were Tribonianus, who was afterwards employed 011 the Digesta and the Institutions, and Theo-philus, a teacher of law at Constantinople. The commission was directed to compile one code from those of Gregorianus, Hermogenianus, and Theo-dosius, and also from the constitutions of Theo-dosius made subsequently to his code, from those of his successors, and from the constitutions p,£

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