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year 1742. (Venuti, Anticldta di Roma, vol. i. p. 98 ; Ficoroni, Vestigie di Roma, pp. 74, 75.) This was the crypta Suburae to which Juvenal refers (Sat. v. 106. Comp. Diet, of Gr. and Rom. Geog. art. Roma.)
The expense of cleansing and repairing these cloacae was, of course, very great, and was defrayed partly by the treasury, and partly, by an assessment called doacarium. (Ulpian, Dig. 7. tit. 1. s. 27. § 3.) Under the republic, the administration of the sewers was entrusted to the censors ; but under the empire, particular officers were appointed for that purpose, cloacarum cura-tores, mention of whom is found in inscriptions (ap. Grut. p. cxcvii. 5, p. cxcviii. 2, 3, 4, 5 ; p. cclii. 1 ; Ulpian, Dig. 43. tit. 23. s. 2). The emperors employed condemned criminals in the task. (Plin. Epist. x. 41.)
Rome was not the only city celebrated for •works of this kind. Diodorus (xi. 25) makes special mention of the sewers (inrSvofjioi) of Agri- gen turn, which were constructed about u. c. 480, by an architect named Phaeax, after whom they were called ipaiaices. [A. R.J
KLOPES DIKE (/cAo^s s(/ct?), the action for theft was brought in the usual manner before a diaetetes or a court, the latter of which Meier (Att. Process, p. 67) infers to have been under the presidency of the thesmothetae, whether the prosecutor preferred his accusation by way of 7/>a</>^ or Siity. We learn from the law quoted by Demosthenes (c. Timocr. p. 733), that the cri minal upon conviction was obliged to pay twice the value of the theft to the plaintiff if the latter recovered the specific thing stolen ; that failing of this, he was bound to reimburse him tenfold, that the court might inflict an additional penalty, and that the criminal might be confined in the stocks (TroSoKa/c/c?;) five clays and as many nights. In some cases, a person that had been robbed was permitted by the Attic law to enter the house in which he suspected his property was concealed, and institute a search for it ((papais, Aristoph. Nubes, 497 ; Plat. De Leg. xii. p. 954) ; but we are not informed what powers he was supplied with to enforce this right. Besides the above mentioned action, a prosecutor might proceed by way of 7pa</>^, and when the delinquent was de tected in the act, by aTraywyfj or €^777 <ns. To these, however, a penalty of 1000 drachmae was attached in case the prosecutor failed in establish ing his case ; so that a diffident plaintiff would often consider them as less eligible means of ob taining redress. (Demosth. c. Androt. p. 601.) In the aggravated cases of stealing in the day time property of greater amount than 50 drachmae, or by night any thing whatsoever (and upon this oc casion the owner was permitted to wound and even kill the depredator in his flight), the most trifling article from a gymnasium, or any thing worth 10 drachmae from the ports or public baths, the law expressly directed an cbrtrycoy?? to the Eleven, and, upon conviction, the death of the offender. (Demosth. c. Timocr. p. 736. 1.) If the ypaty'fl were adopted, it is probable that the punish ment was fixed by the court; but both in this case, and in that of conviction in a Sta77, besides restitution of the stolen property, the disfran- chisement (a-r^fa) of the criminal would be a necessary incident of conviction. (Meier, Att. Process, p. 358.) [J. S. M.J
COA VESTIS, the Coan cloth, is mentioned' by various Latin authors, but most frequently and distinctly by the poets of the Augustan age. (Tibull. ii. 4, ii. 6; Propert. i. 2, ii. 1, iv. 2, iv. 5 ; Hor. Carm. iv. 13. 13, Sat. i. 2.101 ; Ovid, Ars Am. ii. 298.) From their expressions we learn that it had a great degree of transparency, that it was remarkably fine, that it was chiefly worn by women of loose reputation, and that it was some times dyed purple and enriched with stripes of gold. It has been supposed to have been made of silk, because in Cos silk was spun and woven at a very early period, so as to obtain a high celebrity for the manufactures of that island. (Aristot. Hist. Aniin. v. 19.) In the woodcut under coma, a female is represented wearing a robe of this kind. [J. Y.]
COACTOR. This name was applied to col lectors of various sorts, e. g. to the servants of the publicani, or farmers of the public taxes, who col lected the revenues for them (Cic. Pro Rab. Post, 11) ; also to those who collected the money from the purchasers of things sold at a public auction. The father of Horace was a collector of the taxes farmed by the publicani. (Hor. Sat. i. 6. 86 ; Suet. Vit. Hor. init.) Moreover, the servants of the money-changers were so called, from col lecting their debts for them. (Cic. Pro Cluent. 64.) [R. W.]
COCHLEA (woxAias), which properly means a snail, was also used to signify other things of a spiral form.
1. A screw. The woodcut annexed represents a clothes-press, from a painting on the wall of the Chalcidicum of Eumachia, at Pompeii, which is worked by two upright screws (cochleae) precisely in the same manner as our own linen presses. (Mas, Borbonico, iv. 50.)
A screw of the same description was also used in oil and wine presses. (Vitruv.>vi. 9. p. 180, ed. Bipont.; Palladius, iv. 10. § 10, ii. 19, § 1.) The thread of the screw, for which the Latin language has no appropriate term, is called 7T€piK6x\iojs in Greek.
2. A spiral pump for raising water, invented by Archimedes (Diod. Sic. i. 34, v. 37 ; compare Strab. xvii. 30), from whom it has ever since been called the Archimedean screw. It is described at length by Vitruvius (x. 11).