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custom is illustrated by the preceding beautiful gem from the antique, in which the figure of Victory is represented inscribing upon a dipeus the name or merits of some deceased hero.
Each Pvoman soldier had also his own name inscribed upon his shield, in order that he might readily find his own when the order was given to unpile arms (Veget. ii. 17) ; and sometimes the name of the commander under whom he fought. (Hirt. Bell. Alex. 58.)
The dipeus was also used to regulate the temperature of the vapour bath. [balneae, p. 192, a.] [A.R.]
CLITELLAE, a pair of panniers, and therefore only used in the plural number. (Hor. Sat. i. 5. 47 ; Plant. Most. iii. 2. 91.) In Italy they were commonly used with mules or asses, but in other countries they were also applied to horses, of which an instance is given in the annexed woodcut from the column of Trajan ; and Plautus (/Z>. 94) figuratively describes a man upon whose shoulders a load of any kind, either moral or physical, is charged, as homo clitellarius. [A. R.J
CLOACA, a common sewer. The term cloaca is generally used in reference only to those spacious subterraneous vaults, either of stone or brick, through which the foul waters of the city, as well as all the streams brought to Rome by the aqueducts, finally discharged themselves into the Tiber ; but it also includes within its meaning any smaller drain, either wooden pipes or clay tubes (Ulpian, Dig. 43. tit. 23. s. 1), with which almost every house in the city was furnished to carry off its impurities into the main conduit. The whole city was thus intersected by subterraneous passages, and is therefore called urbs pemilis, in Pliny's enthusiastic description of the cloacae. (H. N. xxxvi. 15. s. 24.)
The most celebrated of these drains was the cloaca maxima, the construction of which is ascribed to Tarquinius Priscus (Liv. i. 38 ; Plin. I. c.), and which was formed to carry off the waters brought down from the adjacent hills into the Velabrum and valley of the Forum. The stone of which it is built is a mark of the great antiquity of the work ; it is not the peperino of Gabii and the Alban hills, which was the common building-stone in the time of the commonwealth ; but it is the " tufa litoide " of Brocchi, one of the volcanic formations which is found in many places in Rome, and which was afterwards supplanted in public buildings by the finer quality of the peperino. (Arnold, Hist. Rom. vol. i. p. 52.) This cloaca was formed by three arches, one within the other, the innermost of which is a semicircular vault of
18 Roman palms, about 14 feet in diameter, each of the hewn blocks being 7 h palms long and 4^-high, and joined together without cement. The manner of construction is shown in the annexed woodcut, taken on the spot, where a part of it is uncovered near the arch of Janus Quadrifrons.
The mouth where it reaches the Tiber, noarly opposite to one extremity of the insula Tilerina^ still remains in the state referred to by Pliny (/. t-.). It is represented in the annexed woodcut, with the adjacent buildings as they still exist, the modern fabrics only which encumber the site, being left out.
The passages in Strabo and Pliny which state that a cart (ct/xa£a, vehes) loaded with hay, could pass down the cloaca maxima, will no longer appear incredible from the dimensions given of this stupendous work ; but it must still be borne in mind that the vehicles of the Romans were much smaller than our own. Dion Cassius also states (xlix. 43) that Agrippa, when he cleansed the sewers, passed through them in a boat, to which Pliny probably alludes in the expression urbs subter navigata; and their extraordinary dimensions, as well as that of the embouchures through which the waters poured into them, is still further testified by the exploits of Nero, who threw down the sewers the unfortunate victims of his nightly riots. (Suet. Nero^ 26 ; compare Dionys. x. 53 ; Cic. Pro Sext. 35.)
The cloaca maxima, formed by Tarquin, extended only from the forum to the river, but was subsequently continued as far up as the Subura, of which branch some vestiges were discovered in the