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298 CLIPEUS.

In

TTGpKpepzia oi xvk\os (//. xi. 33). [antyx.] the centre was a projection called cA^ctAos or ue(roiJ.<f)d\iov9 umbo, which served as a sort of weapon by itself, or caused the missiles of the enemy to glance off from the shield. It is seen in the next woodcut, from the column of Trajan. A spike, or some other prominent excrescence, was sometimes placed upon the 6/.t^aAos, which was called

In fche Homeric times, the Greeks used a belt to support the shield ; but this custom was subse­quently discontinued in consequence of its great inconvenience [balteus], and the following me­thod was adopted in its stead: — A band of metal, wood, or leather, termed Kavdov, was placed across the inside from rim to rim, like the diameter of a circle, to which were affixed a number of

CLIPEUS,

small iron bars, crossing each other somewhat in the form of the letter X, which met the arm below the inner bend of the elbow joint, and served to steady the orb. This apparatus, which is said to have been invented by the Carians (Herod, i. 171), was termed o%avov or o%av?7. Around the inner edge ran a leather thong (7r<:>p7ra£), fixed by rails at certain distances, so that it formed a succession of loops all round, which the soldier grasped with his hand (e/x§aAcbz/ ir6pTraKi yzvvaiav Xe/Pa* Ew. Hel. 1396). The preceding woodcut, which shows the whole apparatus, will render this account in­telligible. It is taken from one of the terra cotta vases published by Tischbein (vol. iv. tab. 20).

At the close of a war it was customary for the Greeks to suspend their shields in the temples when the Tr6piraK€S were taken off, in order to render them unserviceable in case of any sudden or popular outbreak ; which custom accounts for the alarm of Demosthenes in the Knights of Aristo­phanes (859), when he saw them hanging up with their handles on.

The a<nfis was carried by the heavy-armed men (6irA?Tcu) during the historical times of Greece, and is opposed to the lighter ire\T7j and yzppov: hence we find the word acnrfs used to signify a body of OTrATrai (Xen. Anab. i. 7. § 10).

According to Livy (i. 43), when the census was instituted by Servius Tullius, the first class only used the clipeus^ and the second were armed with the scutum [scutum] ; but after the Roman sol­dier received pay, the clipeus was discontinued altogether for the Sabine scutum. (Liv. viii. 8 ; compare ix. 19 ; Pint. Rom. 21 ; Diod. Eclog. xxiii. 3, who asserts that the original form of the Roman shield was square, and that it was subse­quently changed for that of the Tyrrhenians, which was round.)

• The practice of emblazoning shields with various devices, the origin of armorial bearings, is of con­siderable antiquity. It is mentioned as early as the time of Aeschylus, who represents the seven chiefs who marched against Thebes with such shields (Aeschyl. Sept. c. Theb. 387, &c. ; comp. Virg. Am. viii. 658 ; Sil. Ital. viii. 386), This

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