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It is stated by Niebuhr, that " if a client died ' without heirs, his patron inherited ; and this law extended to the case of freedmen ; the power of the patron over whom must certainly have been founded originally on the general patronal right." This statement, if it be correct, would be consistent with the quasi patria potestas of the patronus.
But if a cliens died with heirs, could he make a will ? and if he died without heirs, could he not dispose of his property by will ? and if he could not make, or did not make a will, and had heirs, who must they be ? must they be sui heredes ? had he a familia, and consequently agnati ? had he, in fact, that connubium, by virtue of which he could acquire the patria potestas ? He might have all this consistently with the .statement of Diony-sius, and yet be a citizen non optima jure ; for he had not the honores and the other distinguishing privileges of the patricii; and .consistently with the statement df Dionysius he could not vote in the comitia curiata. It is not possible to prove that a cliens had all this, and it seems equally impossible, from existing evidence, to show what his rights really were. So far as oiir extant ancient authorities show, the origin of the clientela, and its true character, were unknown to them. There was a body in the Roman state, at-an early period of its existence, which was neither patrician nor client, and a body which once did not, but ultimately did, participate in the sovereign power: this was the plebs. The clientes also existed in the earliest period of the Roman state, but our knowledge of the true condition of this body must remain inexact, for the want of sufficient evidence in amount, and sufficiently trustworthy.
It is stated by Livy (ii 56) that the clientes had votes in the comitia of the centuries: they were therefore registered in the censors' .books, and could have quiritarian ownership. [centum-vjri.] They had therefore the comniercium, possibly the connubium, and certainly the suffragium. It may be doubted whether Dionysius understood them to have the suffragium at the comitia centu-riata ; but if such was the legal condition of the clientes, it is impossible that the exposition of their relation to the patricians, as given by some modern writers, can be altogether correct.
It would appear, from what 'has been stated, that patronus and patricius were originally convertible terms, at least until the plebs obtained the honores. From that time, many of the reasons for a person being a cliens of a patricius would cease ; for the plebeians had acquired political importance, had become acquainted with the law and the legal forms, and were fully competent to advise their clients* This change must have contributed to the destruction of the strict old clientela, and was the transition to the clientela of the later ages of the republic. (Rag^Lehrbuch, &c. vol. i. p. 458.) It has been conjectured (Becker, Handbucli der Romiscfien Altertliumer, vol. ii. p. 125) that the clientela was an old Italian institution, which existed among some of those people, out of which the Rqmanus Populus arose.- When Tatius and his Sabines settled in Rome, their clients settled there with tKem (Dionys. ii. 46) ; and Attius Clausus brought to Rome a large body of clients. (Liv. ii. 16 ; Dionys. v. 40). It is further conjectured, and it is not improbable, that the clientes were Italians, who had been conquered and reduced to a state of subjection.
Admitting a distinction between the plebs and the old clientes to be fully established, there is till room for careful investigation as to the real ondition of the clientes, and of the composition of the Roman state before the estate of the plebs was made equal to that of the patricians. [G. L.]
CLIMA («:Ai//a), literally a slope or inclination, was used in the mathematical geography of the Greeks* with reference to the inclination of various parts of the earth's surface to the plane of the equator. Before the globular figure of the earth was known, it was supposed that there was a general slope of its surface from south to north, and this was called KXi^a. But as the science of mathematical geography advanced, the word was applied to different belts of the earth's surface, which were determined by the different lengths of the longest day at their lines of demarcation. This division into climates was applied only to the northern hemisphere, as the geographers had no practical knowledge of the earth south of the equator.
Hipparchus (about b. c. 160) seems to have been the first who made use of this division ; his system is explained at length by Strabo (ii. p. 132). Assuming the circumference of a great circle of the earth to be 252,000 stadia, Hipparchus divided this into 360 degrees, of 700 stadia to each ; and then, beginning at the parallel of Meroe, and proceeding northwards, he undertook to describe the astronomical phenomena observed at each degree of latitude, or every 700 stadia: among these phenomena, he observed that the length of the longest day at Meroe was 13 hours, and at Syene 13^. The observations of later astronomers and geographers, such as Geminus, Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, are described in the works cited below. The following table, from Ukert, shows the climates, as given by Ptolemy (Geogr. i. 23). It will be observed that there are nineteen climates, the beginning and middle of which are marked by lines called parallels, of which the first marks the equator, and the thirty-third the arctic circle. Up to this point, there are sixteen climates, of which twelve are determined by the increase of half-an-hour in the length of the longest day, the 13th and 14th 1 hour, and the 15th and 16th 2 hours. In the remaining climates, within the arctic circle, the days no longer increase by hours but by months. Elsewhere (Almag. ii. 6) he makes ten climates north of the equator, beginning at the parallel of Taprobane in lat. 4° 15', and ending at that of Thule, in lat. 63° ; and one to the south, beginning at the equator, or the parallel of Cape Raptum, and ending at the parallel of Antimeroe in lat. 16° 25'.
The term K\tfta was afterwards applied to the average temperature of each of these regions, and hence our modern use of the word. (Strab. L c. ; Dion. Hal. i. 9 ; Pint. Mat: 11, A em. Paul. 5, Moral, p. 891 ; Polyb. vii. 6. § 1, x. 1, § 3 ; Ath. xii. p. 523, e. ; Gemin. Elein. Astron. 5 ; Plin. H. N. ii. 70—75, s. 73—77 ; Agathem. i. 3 ; Cellar. Geog. i. 6 ; Ukert, Geog. vol. i. pt. 2, pp. 182, &c.) [P.S.]