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and Abednego, from the tomb of Pope Callisto on the Via Appia.

The latus clavus was a distinctive badge of the senatorian order (latum demisit pectore clavum, Hor. Sat. 1-6. 28; Ovid, Trist. iv. 10. 35): and hence it is used to signify the senatorial dignity (Suet. Tib. 35* Vesp. 2, 4) ; and latidavitis, for the person who enjoys it. (Suet. Aug. 38.) In distinction ito the angustus clavus, it is termed purpura major (Juv. Sat. i. 106), purpura latior (Plin. PI. N. xxxiii. 7) ; and the garment it de­corated, tunica potens (Stat. Sylv. v. 2. 29). The tunica laticlavia was not fastened round the waist like the common tunic, but left loose, in order that the clavus might lie flat and conspicuously over the chest. (Quinctil. xi. 3. § 138.)

The angustus clavus was the decoration of the equestrian order ; but the right of wearing the latus clavus was also given to the children of equestrians (Ovid. Trist. iv. 10. 29), at least in the time of Augustus, as a prelude to entering the senate-house. This, however, was a matter of personal indulgence, and not of individual right for it was granted only to persons of very ancient family, and corresponding wealth (Stat. Sylo. iv. 8. 59 ; Dig. 24. tit. 1. s. 42), and then by special favour of the emperor. (Suet. Vesp. 2; Tacit. Ann. xvi. 17; Plin. Epist. ii. 9.) In such cases the latus clavus was assumed with the toga virilis, and worn until the age arrived at which the young equestrian was admissible into the senate, when it was relinquished and the angustus clavus resumed, if a disinclination on his part, or any other circum­stances, prevented him from entering the senate, as was the case with Ovid (compare.Trist. iv, 10. 27,


with 35).' But it seems that the latus cla\us could be again resumed if the same individual subse­quently wished to become a senator (Hor. Sat. i. 6. 25), and hence a fickle character is designated as one who is always changing his clavus (Hor. Sat. ii. 7. 10).

The latus clavus is said to have been introduced at Rome by Tullus Hostilius, and to have been adopted by him after his conquest of the Etruscans (Plin. H. N. ix. 63) ; nor does it appear to have been confined to any particular class during the earlier periods, but to have been worn by all ranks promiscuously. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 7.) It was laid aside in public mourning. (Liv. ix. 7.) [A, R.] CLEPSYDRA. [horologium.] CLERU'CHI (KXtipovxoi). [CoLONiA.] CLERUS (/cATjpos). [herbs.] CLETE'RES or CLE'TORES (/cA^r^s or /cArjropes), summoners. The Athenian summoners were not official persons, but merely witnesses to the prosecutor that he had served the defendant with a notice of the action brought against him, and the day upon which it would be requisite for him to appear before the proper magistrate, in order that the first examination of the case might com­mence. (Harpocrat.) In Aristophanes (Nub. 1246 9 Vesp. 1408) we read of one summoner only being employed, but two are generally mentioned by the orators as the usual number. (Dem. c. Nicost. p. 1251. 5, pro Coron. 244. 4, c. Boeot. p. 1017. 6.) The names of the summoners were subscribed to the declaration or bill of the prosecutor, and were, of course, essential to the validity of all pro­ceedings founded upon it. What has been hitherto stated applies in general to all causes, whether Sinai or ypatyai: but in some which commenced with an information laid before magistrates, and an arrest of the accused in consequence (as in the case of an ez/5ei£is or eicrayyeAm), there would be no occasion for a summons, nor, of course, witnesses to its ser­vice. In the ev9vvai and SoKi/naaiai also, when held at the regular times, no summons was issued, as the persons whose character might be affected by an accusation were necessarily present, or pre­sumed to be so ; but if the prosecutor had let the proper day pass, and proposed to hold a special svQvvv) at any other time during the year in which the defendant was liable to be called to account for his conduct in office (virevOvi/os}, the agency of summoners was as requisite as in any other case. Of the SoKifjt,ao"iai that of the orators alone had no fixed time ; but the first step in the cause was not the usual legal summons (irp6o'K\'ri<ns\ but an announcement from the prosecutor to the accused in the assembly of the people. (Meier, Alt. Pro­cess, pp. 212, 575.) In the evert of persons sub­scribing themselves falsely as summoners, they exposed themselves to an action (xJ/euSo/cA^Tetas) at the suit of the party aggrieved. [J. S. M.] CLIBANA'RII. [cataphractl] CLIENS is supposed to contain the same ele­ment as the verb cluere^ to " hear" or " obey," and is accordingly compared by Niebuhr with the Ger­man word hoeriger., " a dependant."

In the time of Cicero, we find patronus in the sense of adviser, advocate, or defender, opposed to cliens in the sense of the person defended, or the consultor ; and this use of the word must be re­ferred, as we shall see, to the original character of the patronus. (Ovid. Art. Am. i. 88 ; Hor. Sat. i. 1. 10, Ep. i. 5. 31, ii. 1. 104.) The relation of a

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