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upon such terms as the lex declared. (Liv. vi. 4 ; and in the case of the Ferentinates, Liv. xxxiv. 42; Cicero, pro Balbo, 13.) The Julia lex, 13. c. 90, was a comprehensive measure. Cicero, however (pro Balbo, c. 8), remarks that many of the people of Heracleia and Neapolis made some opposition to accepting the terms offered by the lex, and would have preferred their former relation to Rome as civitates foederatae (foederis sui libertatem} to the Roman civitas. The lex gave the Roman civitas not only to the natives of the Italian towns, but also to natives of towns out of Italy, who had become citizens of Italian towns before the lex was enacted. Thus L. Manlius (Cic. ad Fam. xiii. 30), a native of Catina, in Sicily, obtained the Roman civitas by virtue of having been enrolled as a citizen of Neapolis (erat enim in id municipium adscripts} before the passing of the lex. The lex Plautia Papiria, which was proposed by the tribunes M. Plautius Silvanus and C. Papirius Carbo, B. c. 89, contained a provision that persons, who had been enrolled as citizens of the foederatae civitates, and who had a domicile in Italy at the time when the law was passed, should have the Roman civitas, if they gave in their names to the praetor within sixty days (apud praetorem essent professi^ Cic, pro Arabia; c. 4). Archias claimed the benefit of this lex as having been enrolled a citizen of Heraclea, and having in the other respects complied with the lex. The case of L. Manlius appears to show that the lex Julia applied to persons not natives of an Italian town if they had become citizens of such town before the passing of the lex ; and it is not clear what was the precise object of the lex Plautia Papiria, whether merely to explain or to limit the operation of the Julia lex. If the Julia lex merely declared that those who were adscripti in the Italian towns before the passing of the lex should acquire the Roman civitas, it would be necessary to provide some security against fraudulent registrations which might ^ be made after the passing of the lex, and this would be effected by requiring adscripti to give in their names at Rome within the sixty days.
With the establishment of the imperial power, the political rights of Roman citizens became insignificant, and the commercium and the connu-bium were the only parts of the civitas that were valuable. The constitution of Antoninus Caracalla, which gave the civitas to all the Roman world, applied only to communities and not to individuals ; its effect was to make all the cities in the empire municipia, and all Latini into cives. The distinction of cives and Latini, from this time forward, only applied to individuals, namely, to freedmen and their children. The peregrinitas in like manner ceased to be applicable to communities, and only existed in the dediticii as a class of individuals. The legislation of Justinian finally put an end to what remained of this ancient division into classes, and the only division of persons was into subjects of the Caesar and slaves.
The word civitas is often used by the Roman writers to express any political community, as Civitas Antiochiensium, &c.
(Swigny,Zeitschrift, &c. vol. v., Ueler die Entste-liung^&.^derLatinitat; vol.ix^DerRomiscJie Volks-schluss der Tafel von HeraJdea; vol. xi., Naclitr'dge zufruherenArbeiten; and Savigny, System des heu-tigen R'6misclien Rechts, vol. ii. p. 23, &c. [G. !>.]
CLAVUS LATUS.. CLANDESTI'NA POSSE'SSIO. [inteh-
CLAVUS ANNALIS. In the early ages of Rome, when letters were yet scarcely in use, the Romans kept a reckoning of their years by driving a nail (davus}, on the ides of each September, into the side wall of the temple of Jupiter Optimua. Maximus, which ceremony was performed by the consul or a dictator. (Festus, s, v. Clav. Annal,; Liv. vii. 3, viii. 18,, ix. 28 ; €ic. ad AtL v. 15.)
CLAVUS GUBERNACULI. [navis.]
CLAVUS LATUS, CLAVUS ANGUSTUS. The meaning of these words has given rise to much dispute ; but it is now established beyond doubt that the davus latus was a broad purple band, extending perpendicularly from the neck down the centre of the tunica, and that the davus aingusius consisted of two. narrow purple slips, running parallel to each other from the top to the bottom of the tunic, one from each shoulder. Hence we find the tunic called the tunica lakidavia and angusticlavia. These purple stripes were woven into the tunic (Plin. //. N. viii. 48); and this circumstance accounts for the fact that the clavus is never represented in works of sculpture. It only occurs in paintings, and those too of a very late period. The davits latus is represented in the annexed cut, which is copied from a painting of
Rome personified, formerly belonging to the Bar-berini family. The davus angusius is seen in the three figures introduced below, all of which are taken from sepulchral paintings executed subsequently to the introduction of Christianity at Rome. The female figure on the left hand, which is copied from Buonarotti (Osservazioni sopra alcuni Frammenti di Vasi antichi di Vetro, tav. xxix. fig. 1), represents the goddess Moneta. The one on the right hand is from a cemetery on the Via Salara Nova, and represents Priscilla, an early martyr. The next figure is selected from three of a similar kind, representing Shadrach, Meshach,