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times the contests between two parties broke out into open violence and bloody quarrels, until at last the disputes which originated in the circus, had nearly lost the Emperor Justinian his crown. (Gibbon, c. 40.)
II. ludus trojae, a sort of sham-fight, said to have been invented by Aeneas, performed by young men of rank on horseback (Tacit. Ann. xi. 11), often exhibited by Augustus and succeeding emperors (Suet. Aug. 43, Nero, 7), which is described by Virgil (Aen. v. 553, &c.).
III. pugna equestris et pedestris, a representation of a battle, upon which occasions a camp was formed in the circus. (Suet. JuL 39, Dom. 4.)
The pompa circensis was abolished by Con- stantine, upon his conversion to Christianity ; and the other games of the circus by the Goths (a. d. 410) ; but the chariot races continued at Constantinople until that city was besieged by the Venetians (a. d. 1204). [A. R.]
CISIUM, a gig, i.e. a light open carriage with two wheels, adapted to carry two persons rapidly from place to place. Its form is sculptured on the monumental column at Igcl, near Treves (see woodcut). It had a box or case, probably under the seat. (Festus, s.v. Plo- xinum.') The cisia were quickly drawn by mules (cisi volant-is, Virg. CataL viii. 3 ; Cic. Pldl. ii. 31). Cicero mentions the case of a messenger who travelled 56 miles in 10 hours in such vehicles, which were kept for hire at the stations along the great roads ; a proof that the ancients considered six Roman miles per hour as an extraordinary speed. (Pro Roscio Amer. 7.) The conductors of these hired gigs were called eisiarii, and were subject to penalties for care less or dangerous driving. (Dig. 19. tit. 2. s. 13.) f [J.Y.]
CISTA. (/acrTTj), a small box or basket, commonly made of wicker-work, in which any thing might be placed. (Cic. Verr. iii. 85 ; Hor. Ep. i. .17. 54.) In the Roman comitia the cista was the ballot-box into which the voters cast their tabellae (Plin. //. N. xxxiii. 2. s. 7 ; Auctor, ad Herenn. i. 12 ; Pseudo-Ascon. ad Cic. Divin. 7. p. 108, ed. Orelli). The form of the cista is preserved on a coin of the Cassia gens, which is represented in the annexed cut, and which is eudently made of wicker or similar work. The material of which it was made is alluded to by Tibullus in the line (i. 7. 48) " et levis occultis conscia cista sacris." The cista has been frequently confounded with the sitella, but the latter was the urn from which the names of the tribes or centuries were drawn out by
The name of cistae was also given to the small boxes which were carried in procession in the Greek festivals of Demeter and Dionysus. These boxes, which were always kept closed in the public processions, contained sacred things connected with the worship of these deities. (Ovid, De Art. Amat. ii. 609 ; Catull. Ixiv. 260 ; Tibull. i. 7. 48.)
In the representations of the Dionysian processions, which frequently form the subject of paintings on ancient vases, women carrying cistae are constantly introduced ; they are usually of an oblong form, and thus differ completely from the cistae used in the Roman comitia. From one of these paintings, given by Millin in his Pein-tures de Vases Antiques, the following woodcut ia taken.
CISTOPIiORUS (Kurro<t>6pos\ a silver coin, which belonged to the kingdom of Pergamus, and which was in general circulation in Asia Minor at the time of the conquest of that country by the Romans. (Liv. xxxvii. 46, 58, xxxix. 7 ; Cic. ad Alt. ii. 6, xi. ].) Its value is extremely uncer tain, as the only information we possess on the subject is in two passages of Festus, which are at variance with each other, and of which certainly one, and probably the other, is corrupt. (Festus, s. vv. Euboicum Talentum, and Talentorum non, &c. ; see Mtiller's notes): and, with respect to the existing specimens, it is doubtful whether they are double or single cistophori. Bb'ckh supposes them to have been originally didrachms of the Aeginetan standard : others take them for tetradrachms. Mr. Hussey (pp.74, 75), from existing coins, which he takes for cistophori, determines it to be about -£ of the later Attic drachma, or Roman denarius of the republic, and worth in our money about 7^d> The existing specimens are extremely scarce. The general device is, on the one side, the sacred chest (cista, whence the name) of Dionysus, half open, with a serpent creeping out of it, surrounded by an ivy wreath, and on the reverse, the car of Do- meter, drawn by serpents. The period during which cistophori were struck, is supposed to have been from about b. c. 200, clown to the battle of Actium. (Panel, de Cistophoris, Lugd. 1734; Eckhel, vol. iv. pp. 352—368 ; Bbckh, MelroL Untersucli. pp. 101, 107.) [P. S.J
CIVILE JUS. [Jus civile.]
CI7VITAS (TroAtreia), citizenship. 1. greek.