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On this page: Chous – Chreous Dike

CHORUS.

TpayoMa; Villoison's Anecdola, ii. p. 178), in rank (fvyd) and file (ctti'xo/!, (Tro?x°1)' It entered tin theatre 'by the passage to the right of the spectators [THEATiiUPvi]. When It entered three abreast It was said to come in Kara, £uya, when five abreast, Kara crroixovs (Pollux, iv. 108). Its entrance was termed irdpoSos; its leaving the stage In the course of the play ^rdirraffLs ; its re-entrance eTHTrapoSos.; its exit a<pd$os. (In the Eumenides the chorus entered in an irregular manner o"7rqpdfir)v.*) As it entered In three lines, with the spectators on its left, the stage on its right, the middle choreutcs of the left row (rpiros apicrrepov) was the Coryphaeus or Hegemon, who in early times at least was not unfrequently .the choragus himself. (Athen. xiv. p. 633 ; Suid. s. v. xopayos.) When they had taken their sta­tions in this order, the row nearest to the specta­tors bore the name apiffrepocrrdrai, that towards the stage de^iocrrdrai, and the middle row \avpoff~ rdrai. The choreutae at the ends, farthest from the Coiyphaeus, were called /cpaenreSirai. These places were also called uttokoattiqi/ rov x°P°v> (Pollux, ii. 161, iv. 107 ; Photius, p. 210, ed. Bekker ; Pint. Synyp. v. 5. p. 678, d. ; Hesych. a-. vv.) Miiller arranges them .so that the Cory­phaeus stands upon the Thymele, or at least upon the steps of it (Eumen. Dissert.}, and so conversed with the actors over the heads of the chorus, Her­mann (Rev. of Midterms Eumen. Opusc. vol. vi. p. 143, &c.) denies this, and infers from the ac­counts of Vitruvius and -other ancient authorities that the .chorus took its station .and performed its evolutions upon a platform one or two feet lower than the stage, and reaching from the stage to the Thymele which stood in the middle of the en-tire space called icoviffrpa. On the steps of the Thy­mele, and therefore below the Pp^rjcTTpa, .properly so called, were stationed the musicians and cer­tain police-officers to keep order. Of course the positions first taken up by the choreutae were only retained till they commenced their evolutions. To guide them in these., lines were marked upon the boards with which the orchestra was floored. The flute as well as the cithara was used .as an accom­paniment to the choric songs. The dance of the tragic chorus was called e/^ueAeia, .answering to the gymnopaedic dance of the Dorian choruses {Athen. L c.).

The ordinary number of the chorus in a comedy was 24 (Sehol. ad Arist. Av. 298, Acliarn. 210, Equit. 586 ; Pollux, iv. 109 ; Tzetzes, praleg. ad Lycoplir. p. 1). Like the tragic chorus it was arranged in a quadrangular form, and entered the orchestra from opposite sides, according as it was supposed to come from the city or from the country. It consisted sometimes half of male and half of female choreutae. It seems to be a mis­take of the scholiast on Aristophanes (Equit. 1. 586) that in such cases the former were 13, the 2atter 11 in number. At least in the Birds of Aristophanes the chorus consists of 12 male and 12 female birds. (.297—304.) The dance of the £omic chorus was the /c^p5a|, which answered to tiie Hyporchematic style of the Doric chorus. In the .Satyric drama the chorus consisted of Sa­tyrs. Of how many it consisted cannot be deter-,mined with any certainty. Its dance was called jfiKivvis, It answered to the Pyrrhic. (Athen. i. j>. 20sxiv. p. 6.3,0.)

When a po.e$ .intended to bring forward a play,

CHRONOLOG1A.

he had to apply for a diarus (%opbz/ cure?*/) to the archons, to the king arcJion if the .play was to be brought forward at the Lenaea, to the archon eponymus if at the great Dionysia. If the play were thought to deserve it, he received a chorus (XQpbv Aa,u£aj/€ij/), the expenses of wliich were Toorne by a choregus [choreg.us]. The poet then either trained (cu5a<r/ceij/) the chorus himself, which Aeschylus often did (Athen. a. p. 21), or entrusted that business to a professed chorus trainer

, who .usually had an assistant Pollux, iv. 106). For training the chorus in its evolutions there was also an opxn<rro§tddcrKa\os. The chorus in comedies at first consisted of amateurs (eOeAoyrai, Arist. Poet. 5). [C, P.M.]

CHOUS (xqc-us, %ous)., a Greek liquid measure which is stated by all the authorities to be equal to the Roman congius, and to contain six ^eVrcu or. sextarii, nearly 6 ;pints English. Suidas alone makes a distinction .between the %oOs and the Xozvs, making the former equal to .two sextarii, and the latter equal to six. Now when we re­member that the x°^s was commonly used as a drinking vessel at Athenian entertainments (Ari-stoph. Acharn. v. 1086), that on the day of the %oes- [dionysia], a prize was given to the person who first drank off his X°^s> an^ that Milo of Croton is said to have drunk three %oes of wine at a draught, it is incredible that in these cases the large xqvs mentioned above .could be meant. It seems, therefore, probable that there was also a smaller measure of the same name, containing, as Suidas states, two sextarii, or nearly 2 pints Eng­lish. At first it was most likely the .common name for a drinking vessel. According to Crates (Ap. Athen. xi. p. 496), the %o9s had originally a similar form to the Panathenaic amphorae, and was also called ireXtKV}. (Pollux, x. 73 ; Wurm, De Pond. Mem. &c^ pp. 127, 136, 141, 19.8 ; Hussev, Ancient Weights, &c. p. 211—213.) [P. S.] "

CHRONOLO'GIA

CHREOUS DIKE (xpeovs Sl/oj), a simple action for debt, was, like most of the other cases arising upon an alleged breach of contract, referred to the jurisdiction of the thesmsthetae, when the sum in question amounted .to more than ten drachmae. If otherwise, it fell under the cogni­ zance of those itinerant magistrates, who were originally thirty in number, and styled accordingly at rpidicovra: but afterwards, in .consequence of the odium attaching to this name, which had also served to^ designate the oligarchic tyrants, received an accession of ten colleagues and a corresponding change of title. (Pollux, viii. 100.) If the cause could be classed among the £W>i.voi cn/ccw as for instance, when the debt arose upon a mercantile transaction, the thesmothetae would still have jurisdiction in it, though one of the parties to the suit were an alien, otherwise it seems that when such a person was the defendant, it was feroiwht into the court of the polemarch. (Meier, Ait. Pro.c. p. 55.) If the .cause were treated as a Si'/c?? 'EfATrqpix-f], as above mentioned, the plaintiff would forfeit a sixth part of the sum contested, upon failing to obtain the votes «f one -fifth of the dicas.ts (Suid. s. v. 'ETrcogeAta) ; but we are not informed whether this regulation was applicable, under similar circumstances, in all prosecutions for debt. The speech -of Demosthenes against Timo- theus was made in a cause of this kind. [J.S. M.]

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