The Ancient Library

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.fbrcheme that flute music was first introduced into the worship of Apollo. (Bode, vol. ii. part ii. pp. 13, 16, 17, 33, 34, 244.) For the K&pos, however, which was a mirthful and irregular procession, in which those who took part in it both sang and danced (as in the km/acs part of the marriage pro­cession described by Hesiod, Shield of Here. 281, &c.), the flute was the regular instrument.

A great impetus was given to choral poetry by its application to the dithyramb. This ancient Bacchanalian performance, the origin of which is at any rate earlier than Archilochus, who in one of the fragments of his poetry, says that " he knows how to lead off the dithyramb, the beautiful song of Dionysus, when Ms mind is inflamed with wine" (Athen. xiv. p. 628), seems to have been a hymn sung by one or more of a Kwftos, or irregular band of revellers, to the music of the flute. Arion was the first who gave a regular choral, or antistrophic form to the dithyramb. This improvement was introduced at Corinth. (Herod, i. 24 ; Pindar, Ol. xiii. 18 or 25, with the notes of the commenta­tors.) The choruses, which ordinarily consisted of fifty men or youths (Simonides, Epigr. 58, Br. ; Tzetzes, proleg. ad Lyeoplir. vol. i. p. 251, ed. Muller), danced in a ring round the altar of Dionysus. Hence they were termed cyclic choruses (Ku/cAwi %opoi), and dithyrambic poets were un­derstood by the term KVK\io$i$d(rKa\oi. This also explains the name Cycleus, given to the father of Arion (Muller, Hist. Gr. Lit. p. 204). With the introduction of a regular choral character, Arion al?o substituted the cithara for the flute. The statement that he was the inventor of the traffic style (rpayiKbs t^ttos), means probably that he introduced dithyrambs of a gloomy character, having for their subject the sorrows of Dionysus, as well as the more gay and joyous song (Muller, I.e. pp.204, 290). Arion is also said to have been the first to introduce into these choruses satyrs speaking in verse. Lasus, of Hermione, gave a freer form to the dithyramb, by divesting it of its antistrophic character, and set the example of in­troducing the dithyrambic style into compositions not immediately connected with the worship of Dionysus. He also united with the representation of the dithyramb taunting jests. It was through him that dithyrambic contests were introduced at Athens, at which the prize for the successful poet was a tripos, and for the chorus a bulL (See the epitaph on Simonides, AntJiol Pal. vi. 213, Fr. p. 190, ed. Jacobs ; Schol. ad Aristoph, Ran. 360, Vesp. 1403.) The dance of the cyclic chorus was the Dionysiac variety of the Pyrrhic (Aris­toph. Av. 153; Athen. xiv. p. 631, a.). In the time of Simonides, through the innovations of La­sus Crexus, Phrynis, and others, the citharoedic character which Arion had given to the dithy­ramb had passed into the auloedic. As the di-tlivramb lost its antistrophic character, it became more and more thoroughly mimetic or dramatic, and as its performance required more than ordinary skill, dithyrambs came to be performed by ama­teurs (Aristot. Probl. xv. 9, Rhet. iii. 9 ; Plut. de Mus. 29. p. 1141,b. ; Proclus, ap. Phot. cod. 239. p. 320, ed. Bekker ; Bode, ii. part ii. p. 312, &c.) For ordinary choruses the universal culture of music and dancing would make it no difficult matter to find a chorus. Wealthy men or tyrants no doubt maintained choreutae, as they maintained poets and musicians. Poets of distinction would have



choreutae attached to them. There were also pro­fessed chorus-trainers, whose services were in re­quisition when the poet was unable to drill the chorus himself, and these often had a body of choreutae attached to them. The recitation of Pindar's second Isthroian ode was undertaken in this way by Nicesippus, with an Agrigentine chorus. The sixth Olympian ode was undertaken by Aeneas, a Boeotian, with a trained chorus which he brought with him (Schol. ad Find. Istlim. ii. 6, Olymp. vi. 148). Most of Pindar's epinicia were comus-songs, though not all (Bode, ii. 2. p. 255—257), and the comuses which sang them must frequently have been of a somewhat artificial construction.

Respecting the mode in which tragedy was de­veloped from the dithyramb, and the functions of the chorus in tragedy, the reader is referred to the article tragoedia.

From the time of Sophocles onwards the regular number of the chorus in a tragedy was 15. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 586, Av. 298 ; Pollux, iv. 108.) The account given by Suidas (s. v. ^otyo-ka.tjs), that Sophocles raised the number from 12 to 15 is deserving of attention, though there are great difficulties connected with it. Pollux (iv. 110) has an absurd story that the number of the chorus was 50 before the representation of the Eu-menides of Aeschylus, and that the number was then reduced by a law on account of the terror pro­duced by the appearance of the 50 Eumenides. It seems scarcely possible to arrive at any definite con­clusion with regard to the number of the chorus in the early dramas of Aeschylus. The fact that the number of the dithyrambic chorus was 50, and that the mythological number of the Oceanides and Danaides was the same, tempts one to suppose that the chorus in the Prometheus and the Sup-plices consisted of 50. Most writers, however, agree in thinking that such a number was too large to have been employed (Welcker, Aeschyl. Trtioffie, p. 27, &c. ; Hermann, Dissert, de Choro Eumen. i. and ii. Opusc. vol. ii.) Miiller (Dis­sertations on the Eumenides of Aeschylus, I. A. ; Hist, of Gr. Lit. p. 300) propounds the theory that the dithyrambic chorus of 50, when trans­ferred to tragedy, was reduced to 48, and that a chorus of that number was assigned to the poet for four plays, the trilogy and the satyric drama, and was subdivided into sections of 12, each of which was the chorus for one play. In support of this he endeavours to point out instances of choruses of this number being found in Aeschylus, as that in the Agamemnon, which re-appears as the Areopagites in the Eumenides, and that in the Persae. But the insufficiency of the evidence brought forward to establish this has been satis­factorily pointed out by Hermann in his review of Muller's edition of the Eumenides (Opusc. vol. vi.). The idea that the chorus, of the Eumenides con­sisted of three (Blomfield, Praef. ad Aesch. Pers.), has met with very little favour among German scholars, though the arguments brought against it are not all of the most convincing kind, and it is to be borne in mind that the introduction of the Areopagites, &c. into the play, would render the fewness of such a chorus less striking than would otherwise have been the case. The later chorus of 15 was the only one that the grammarians knew any thing about. It was arranged in a quadrangular form (Terp^w^os, Etym. Magn. *. v,

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