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CHORUS,

clence, are best left undecided. The war-dances of the Curetes in Crete in honour of Zeus, seem to be quite as ancient as any that we know of in honour of Apollo. However dances may have origiuated, it was natural that, like music and poetry, they should at a very early period be con­nected with the worship of the gods ; and in that connection it is certainly true that it was among the Dorians, and connected with the worship of Apollo, that the chorus received its earliest de­velopment, though there does not appear sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that the worship of Apollo existed nowhere without having been introduced l)j the Dorians.

The imperfect type of the later chorus appears in the earliest period in the paean, as sung by a company either sitting still (II. i. 473), or moving along with a measured step (11. xxii. 391). In the Homeric hymn to the Pythian Apollo we have the god himself as leader of the chorus, playing the phormmx, while the chorus of Cretans-follow him at a measured pace, and sing the Paean. [paean], This exhibits the Paean in a some­what later stage of development. In Homer it appears as a less formal and systematic perform­ance. Dancing was very early connected with the worship of Apollo in Delos (Hymn. Apoll. Del. 1. 149, &c.), and in Crete. (Hesiod. Fr. 94. Gottl.) It was in Crete that the mimetic dance, called Hyporchema, took its origin [hyporchema; saltatio], and it was thence also that the sub­sequent innovations upon the staid gravity of the Paean were derived, traces of the origin of which were preserved in the name of the rhythms and dances. (Muller, Dorians, ii. 8. § J4.) To Tha-letas are attributed the .most important improve­ments. He cultivated the art of dancing no less than that of music, and adapted the evolutions of the chorus to the more spirited movements of the Phrygian style of music. He is said to have com­posed both paeans and hyporchemes, the latter of which he adapted for the Pyrrhic or war-dance ; and from having given them a more artistic form, he came to be regarded by some as the inventor of them. (Muller, History of the Literature of An­cient Gi~eece. p. 160, &c.) Paeans began to be sung with an orchestic accompaniment on the part of the chorus, especially at the festival of the Gymnopaeclia [gymnopaedia], and by degrees became scarcely distinguishable from the hypor-cheme. (Muller, I. c. p. 160 ; Bode, Gesch. der Hellen. Dichtk. vol. ii. parti, p. 46.) That com­bination of singing and dancing which we find in the choruses of later times, to which the remark of Lucian applies (de Salt. 30), TraAai pxv yap ol avrol koi rt$ov koi a^oi/pro, was probably intro­duced by degrees. It had taken place before the time of Alcman, who introduced into his choral compositions an antistrophic character. A large number of these he composed for choruses of vir­gins: in some there was a dialogue between the chorus and the poet. (Muller, 1. c. p. 194, &c.) In his compositions strophes and antistrophes of the same measure usually succeeded each other in indefinite number. Stesichorus introduced the im­provement of adding an.epode, during which the chorus were to stand still, to the strophe and anti-strophe. (Suidas, s. v. Tpia ^ryarixopov • Miiller, I. c. p. 199.) In the arrangement of his choruses he seems to have had a great partiality for the octagonal form, or for certain combinations of eight.

CHORUS.

whence arose the proverb Trdvra o/rrctj. At Catana there was erected to him an octagonal monument with 8 columns and 8 steps. (Suidas, s. v. trdvra. o/crc6 and st^o^xo/jos.)

In all the Dorian states, especially among the Spartans, these choral performances were cultivated with great assiduity. Various causes contributed to this, as for example, their universal employment in the worship of Apollo, the fact that they were not confined to the men, but that women also took part in them, and that many of the dances had a gymnastic character given them, and were em­ployed as a mode of training to martial exercises. [saltatio. 1 Hence it arose that the Dorian lyric poets directed their labours almost entirely to sup­ply the demand for songs and hymns to be sung as accompaniments to the dances, and that Doric lyric poetry became almost exclusively choral, which was not the case with the other great school of Greek lyric poetry, the Aeolian ; so that the Doric dialect came to be looked upon as the appropriate dialect for choral compositions, and Doric forms were retained by the Athenians even in the choral compositions which were interwoven with their dramas. (Miiller, Dorians, iv. 7. § 9.) Still it is not to be supposed that there was no choral poetry which was not Doric. Several Lesbian lyric poems appear to have had a choral character. (Muller, Hist, of Lit. of Greece, p. 165.)

The Spartans had various kinds of dances (Muller, Dor. iv. 6. § 8, &c.) ; but the three prin­cipal styles were the Pyrrhic, the Gymnopaedic, and the Hyporchematic (Athenaeus, xiv. p. 631, xv. p. 678), in all of which something of a mimetic character was to be found, but more especially in the last. Miiller (Lit. of Gr. p. 161) expresses an opinion that the gymnopaedic style, to which the e/XjU.eA.€ta of tragedy corresponded, is not to be confounded with the dances of the gymnopaedic festival. The Pyrrhic or war dance (irpvKis. Homer calls hoplites TrpuAees) was made subservient to gymnastic and martial training. Hence the analogy that may be traced between the construction and evolution of the chorus and of the lochus. (Muller, Dor. iii. 12. § 10 ; Lucian, de Saltat. 7.) At the Gymnopaeclia large choruses of men and boys ap­peared, in which great numbers of the citizens would have to take part. (Muller, Dor. iv. 6. § 4.) At several of the festivals there were distinct choruses of boys, men, and old men. (Plut. Zy-curg. 21 ; Pollux, iv. 107 ; Miiller, Dor. iv. 6. §5, Hist, of the Lit of Gr. p. 194.) Dances in which youths and maidens were intermingled were called op/j,oL. (Lucian, deSalt. 12.) It was in the hypor­chematic dance especially that the chorus both sang and danced. (Athen. xiv. p. 631.)

The instrument commonly used in connection with the Doric choral poetry was the cithara. In the Pyrrhic dance, however, the flute was em­ployed. (Miiller, Dor. iv. 6. § 7, Hist. Gr. Lit. p. 161.) In the hyporchematic performances at Delos, described by Lucian (de Salt. 6), both the cithara and the flute were used. Archilochus speaks of the flute as an accompaniment to the Lesbian paean (ap. Athen. v. p. 180). It is not, therefore, quite correct to say that wherever we find the flute employed, we have not a proper chorus but a comus. (Comp. Bode, vol. ii. part i. pp. 47, 208.) Thaletas, who introduced the Phrygian style, probably made use of the flute as well as the cithara. It was in connection with the hy-

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