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CHORUS.

trainer, but the choreutae themselves, and main­tain them while they were in training, providing them with such food as was adapted to strengthen the voice *; and to provide a suitable training place (xopTjyeToy) if he had no place in his own house adapted for the purpose. (Antiph. I. c. ; A then. xiv. p. 617, b.; Sehol. ad Arist. Nub. 338, Ac/tarn. 1154; Plui.deGlor.Ath.]>.34:99a; Xen. de Republ. Ath. i. 13 ; Poll. iv. 106, ix. 41.) He had also to provide the chorus with the requisite dresses, crowns-, and masks. (Dem. c. Meld. p. 519; Athen. iii. p. 103, f.) It is not to be sup­posed, however, that the choregus defrayed the whole expense of the play to be represented. The clioregus who was judged to have performed Ins duties in the best manner received a tripod as a prize, the expense of which, however, he had to defray himself; and this expense frequently in­cluded the building of a cell or chapel in which to dedicate it. A street at Athens was called the Street of the Tripods, from being lined with these. The tribe to which the clioregus belonged shared the honours of the victory with him, and the names of both were inscribed upon the tripod or monu­ment. (Paus. i. 20. §1; Plat. Govg. p. 472 ; F Int. nig. 3.) The sums expended by choregi were doubtless in most cases larger than was abso­lutely necessary. Aristophanes (Lys. pro Arist. Ion. pp. 633, 642) spent 5000 drachmae upon two tragic choruses. From the same orator we learn that another person spent 3000 drachmae upon a single tragic chorus ; 2000 for a chorus of men ; 5000 for a chorus of men on another occasion, when, having gained the prize, he had to defray the expense of the tripod ; 800 drachmae for a chorus of pyrrhicists ; 300 drachmae for a cyclic chorus. (Lys. cbroA. SwpoS. pp. 698, ed. Reiske.) : A chorus of flute-players cost more than a tragic chorus. (Dem. c. Meid. p. 565.) In times of public distress, the requisite number of choregi could not always be procured. Thus the tribe Pandionis had furnished no clioregus for three years, till Demosthenes voluntarily undertook the office. (Dem. c. Meid. pp. 578, 579 ; eomp. Bockh. Pull Econ. of Athens^ book iii. c. 22.) [C.P.M.]

GHOROBATES, an instrument for determining the slope of an aqueduct and the levels of the country through which it was to pass. From the description given of it by Vitrovius, it appears to have differed but very slightly from a common carpenter's level, which consists of a straight rule supporting a perpendicular piece, against which hangs a plumb-line. The chorobates had two per­ pendiculars and plumb lines, one at each end, in­ stead of a single one in the middle. The derivation of the word is from %copa and jSaf-yw, from its use in surveying land minutely. [P. S.]

CHORUS (x°p6s), a word, the original meaning and derivation of which are somewhat uncertain. According to Hesychius the word is equivalent to kvk\os or (rretpavos. If so, the word probably signified originally a company of dancers dancing in a ring. Those who adopt that view of the origin of the word connect it with xo/jtos-,

* The speech of Antiphon, irepl tov was composed for a trial which arose out of an action brought by the father of a choreutes against the choregus under whose charge he was, because the boy had died from drinking some mixture given him to improve his voice. -

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CHORUS.

and Kopwv6s. Others suppose that the earliest signification of the word is that of a level, open space, such as would be suited for dancing, and connect it with x^Pa an(i X&P°s-> so that the later and ordinary signification of the word would be derived from such places being employed for danc­ing. This seems a less likely account of the word than the other. If the name xop0'1 was given to such places with reference to their use for dancing, we should still have to look to this latter idea for the origin of the name of the place ; if the name was a general one, like x®P0<>i it seems very un­likely that a body of dancers should derive their name from what is so very little distinctive of them, namely their meeting in an open space. On the other hypothesis it is easy to understand how a word signifying a body of dancers should come to signify the place where they danced, and then, more generally, any place suited for the purpose. As regards the usage of the word, in Homer it commonly means a troop of dancers ; in the Odyssey (viii. 260, 264, xii. 4) passages are found where it means a place for dancing ; eupu%opos is found both in Homer and in later writers as an epithet of cities having large open squares or places suited for choral performances. A comparison with the corresponding Avord /caAAt'xopos shows that the notion of dancing must not be lost sight of. At Sparta the agora was called x&P^s (Pans. iii. 11. §9).

In later times, a choric performance always im­plies the singing or musical recitation of a poetical composition, accompanied by appropriate dancing and gesticulation, or at least by a measured march. The choruses that we read of in Homer are merely

*/

companies of dancers, who- move to the music of a song sung by the minstrel, who accompanies him. self on the eithara or phorminx. In the palace of Alcinous the dancers perform their evolutions, while Demodocus, to the music of the phorminx, sings the loves of Ares and Aphrodite (Od. viii. 256, &c.). In the chorus represented on the shield of Achilles (II. xviii. 590, &c.) a band of youths and maidens dance, holding each other by the hand, sometimes in a ring, sometimes in parallel lines opposite to each other. In the midst of the dancers are two /cugiorrTj-r^pes, or tumblers, who, apparently, by their gesticulations direct and lead o^*(e£ap%oj/Tes) the measured movements (/xoattt?) of the dancers. So in the Homeric hymn to the Pythian Apollo (10, &c.) a company of goddesses dance, while the Muses sing, and Apollo plays the eithara. The part of the nv^Krr^rTJpGs is per­formed by Ares and Hermes, who gesticulate (irai&vcn) in the midst of the dancers. In the description of the nuptial procession in Hesiod (Shield of Here. 272, &c.) it is not quite clear whether the chorus of youths are singing and danc­ing to the sound of the pipe, or playing the pipe themselves. The band of revellers («%to.s) who follow both dance and sing. ; That the- chorus, in the earliest times, consisted of the whole population of a city assembled for dances and hymns in honour of their guardian- god, might "be true if the whole population joined in the dance, but not otherwise, for the term chorus never included the spectators.

Whether the Dorians were the first who had choruses at festive or religious celebrations, or whether Apollo was the deity in connection with whose worship choruses first made their appear­ance, are points which, in the absence of all evi-

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