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On this page: Chiton – Chitonia – Chlaina – Chlamys




the point of union, and become broader by degrees towards the other end, where, when closed, they form a kind of arch. It should be noticed that it is furnished with a moveable ring, exactly like the tenaculum forceps employed at the present day. No. 13 was used for pulling out hairs by the roots (rpixoXagis'). No. 14 is six inches long, and is bent in the middle. It was probably used for ex­ tracting foreign bodies that had stuck in the oeso­ phagus (or gullet), or in the bottom of a wound. 15. A male catheter (aenea fistula) ^ nine inches in length. The shape is remarkable from its having the double curve like the letter S, which is the form that was re-invented in the last century by the celebrated French surgeon, J. L. Petit. 16. Probably a female catheter, four inches in length. Celsus thus describes both male and female cathe­ ters (De Med. vii.26. § 1. p. 429):•—" The surgeon should have three male catheters (aeneas fistulas}^ of which the longest should be fifteen, the next twelve, and the shortest nine inches in length ; and he should have two female catheters, the one nine inches long, the other six. Both sorts should be a little curved, but especially the male ; they should be perfectl}*" smooth, and neither too thick nor too thin." 17. Supposed by Froriep to be an instrument for extracting teeth (oSovrdypa, Pol­ lux, iv. § 181) ; but Kiihn, with much more pro­ bability, conjectures it to be an instrument used in amputating part of an enlarged uvula, and quotes Celsus (De Med. vii. 12. § 3. p. 404), who says, that " no method of operating is more convenient than to take hold of the uvula with the forceps, and then to cut off below it as much as is necessary." 18, 19. Probably two spatulae. [W. A. G.]

CHITON (xm^). [tunica.]

CHITONIA (xircSwa), a festival celebrated in the Attic town of Chitone in honour of Artemis, surnamed Chitona or Chitonia. (Schol. ad Calli-mack. Hymn, in Artem. 78.) The Syracusans also celebrated a festival of the same name, and in honour of the same deity, which was distinguished by a peculiar kind of dance, and a playing on the flute. (Athen. xiv. p. 629 ; Steph. Byz.-s. v. xl-

rt&wj [L. S.]

CHLAINA (%Aa?m). [laena ; pallium.]

CHLAMYS (%A.a/^us, dim. %AafiuStov), a scarf. This term, being Greek, denoted an article of the amictus, or outer raiment, which was in general characteristic of the Greeks, and of the Oriental races with which they were connected, although both in its form and in its application it approached very much to the lacerna and paludamentum of the Romans, and was itself to some extent adopted by the Romans under the emperors. It was for the most part woollen; and it differed from the i/xarioi/, the usual amictus of the male sex, in these respects, that it was much smaller ; also finer, thinner, more variegated in colour, and more susceptible of ornament. It moreover dif­ fered in being oblong instead of square, its length being generally about twice its breadth. To the regular oblong «, 6, c, d (see woodcut), goars were added, either in the form of a right-angled triangle «, e,/J producing the modification a, e, #, d, which is exemplified in the annexed figure of Mercury ; or of an obtuse-angled triangle «, e., 6, producing the modification a, e^ 6, c, g, d^ which is exemplified in the figure of a youth from the Panathenaic frieze in the British Museum, These goars were called

, ^umgs.l and the scarf with these additions was distinguished by the epithet of Thessalian or Macedonian (Etym. Mag.}, and also by the name of "AATuI or Alicula. [ALicuLA.] Hence the an­cient geographers compared the form of the in­habited earth (% otKoUjiteV?]) to that of a chlamys. (Strabo, ii. 5 ; Macrobius, De Somn. Scip. ii.)

The scarf does not appear to have been much worn by children, although one was given with its brooch to Tiberius Caesar in his infancy. (Suet. Tib. 6.) It was generally assumed on reaching adolescence, and was worn by the ephebi from about seventeen to twenty years of age. (Philemon, p. 367, ed. Meineke ; ephebica clilamyde, Apuleius, Met. x ; Pollux, x. 164.) It was also worn by the military, especially of high rank, over their body-armour (Aelian, V. PI. xiv. 10 ; Plaut. Pseud, ii. 4. 45, Epid. iii. 3. 55), and by hunters and tra-

* J. f J *s

vellers, more particularly on horseback. (Plaut. Poen. iii. 3. 6, 31.)

The scarfs worn b}r youths, by soldiers, and by hunters, differed in colour and fineness, according to their destination, and the age and rank of the wearer. The xAcfyii;.? e^gi/c?/ was probably yel­low or saffron-coloured ; and the xAa/xi>s arrparia}-•n/07, scarlet. On the other hand, the hunter com­monly went out in a scarf of a dull unconspicuous colour, as best adapted to escape the notice of wild animals. (Pollux, v. 18.) The more ornamental scarfs, being designed for females, were tastefully decorated with a border (limbus, Virg. Aen. iv. 137 ; maeander, v. 251) ; and those worn by Phoenicians, Trojans, Phrygians, and other Asiatics, were also embroidered, or interwoven with gold. (Virg. II. co. ; iii. 483, 484, xi. 775 ; Ovid, Met. v. 51 ; Val. Flaccus, vi. 228.) Actors had their chlamys ornamented with gold. (Pollux, iv. 116.)

The usual mode of wearing the scarf was to pass one of its shorter sides (a, d} round the neck, and to fasten it by means of a brooch (fibula), either over the breast, in which case it hung down the back, reaching to the calves of the legs or over the right shoulder, so as to cover the left arm, as is seen in the cut on p. 259, and in the well-known example of the Belvidere Apollo. In other in­stances it was made to depend gracefully from the left shoulder, of which the bronze Apollo in the British Museum (see the annexed woodcut) pre­sents an example ; or it was thrown lightly behind the back, and passed over either one arm or shoulder, or over both (see the second figure in the last woodcut, taken from Hamilton's Vases, i. 2) ; or, lastly, it was laid upon the throat, carried be­hind the neck, and crossed so as to hang down the back, as in the figure of Achilles (p. 196), and sometimes its extremities were again brought for­ward over the arms or shoulders, In short, the

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