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entirely to surgery, and has inserted in them much useful matter, the fruits chiefly .of his own observation and experience. He was particularly celebrated for his skill in midwifery, and female diseases, and was called on that account, by the Arabians, Al-Kawabeli, " the Accoucheur," (Abul-pharaj, Hist. Dynast., p. 181, ed. Pococke). Two pamphlets were published in 1768 at Gottingen, 4to. by Hud. Aug. Vogel, entitled De Pauli 'AeyinetaQ Mentis in Medicinam, imprimisque Chirurgiam. Paulus Aegineta lived probably towards the end of the seventh century, A. d., and is the last of the ancient Greek and Latin medical writers whose surgical works remain. The names of several others are recorded, but they are not of sufficient eminence to require any notice here. For further information on the subject both of medicine and surgery, see medicina. ; and for the legal qualifications, social rank, &c., both of physicians and surgeons, among the ancient Greeks and Romans, see medicus.
The surgical instruments, from which the accompanying engravings are made, were found by a physician of Petersburg, Dr. Savenko, in 1819, at Pompeii, in Via Consularis (Strada Consulare), in a house which is supposed to have belonged to a surgeon. They are now preserved in the museum at Portici. The engravings, with an account of them by Dr. Savenko, were originally published in the Revue Medicate for 1821, vol. iii. p. 427, &c. They were afterwards inserted in Froriep's Notizen aus dem Gebiete der Natur-imd-Heilkunde^ for 1822, vol. ii. n. 26. p. 57, &c. The plate containing these instruments is wanting in the copy of the Revue Medicale in the library of the College of Surgeons, so that the accompanying figures are copied from the German work, in which some of them appear to be drawn very badly. Their authenticity was at first doubted by Kiihn (De Instrum. Oliirurg., Veteribus cognitis^ et nuper effossis. Lips. 1823, 4to.), who thought they were the same that had been described by Bayardi in his- CataL Antiq. Monument. Herculani eftbs., Nap. 1754. fol. n. 236—294; when, however, his dissertation was afterwards republished (Opusc. Academ. Med. et Pliilol., Lips. 1827, 1828, 8vo. vol. ii. p. 309) he acknowledged himself to be completely satisfied on this point, and has given in the tract referred to, a learned and ingenious de-
scription of the instruments, and their supposed uses, from which the following account is chiefly abridged. It will, however, be seen at once, that the form of most of them is so simple, and their uses so obvious, that very little explanation is necessary.
1, 2. Two probes (specillum, ^\r}} made of iron ; the larger six inches long, the smaller four and a half. 3. A cautery (Kavr^piov} made of iron, rather more than four inches long. 4, 5. Two lancets (sccdpellum., tr/xtATj), made of copper, the former two inches and a half long, the other three inches. It seems doubtful whether they were used for blood-letting, or for opening abscesses, &c. 6. A knife, apparently made of copper, the blade of which is two inches and a half long, and in the broadest part one inch in breadth; the back is straight and thick, and the edge much curved ; the handle is so short that Savenko thinks it must have been broken. It is uncertain for what particular purpose it was used: Kiihn conjectures that (if it be a surgical instrument at all) it may have been made with such a curved edge, and such a straight thick back, that it might be struck with a hammer, and so amputate fingers, toes, &c. 7. Another knife, apparently made of copper, the blade of which is of a triangular shape, two inches long, and in the broadest part eight lines in breadth; the back is straight and one line broad, and this breadth continues all the way to the point, which, therefore, is not sharp, but guarded by a sort of button. Kiihn thinks it may have been used for enlarging wounds, £c., for which it would be particularly fitted by its blunt point and broad back.
8. A needle, about three inches long, made of iron.
9. An elevator (or instrument for raising depressed portions of the skull), made of iron, five inches long, and very much resembling those made use of
in the present day. 10—14. Different kinds of forceps (vulsetta). No. 10 has the two sides separated from each other, and is five inches long. No. 11 is also five inches long. No. 12 is three inches and a half long. The sides are narrow at