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On this page: Cheironomia – Cheirotonia – Chelidonia – Chelys – Cheniscus – Chernips – Cherostae – Chiliarchus – Chiramaxium – Chiridota – Chirographum

GHELIDONTA,

which had arisen amongst them might be made up, and a reconciliation effected. It was celebrated every year on the 19th of February. (Ov. Fast. ii. 617; Val. Max. ii. 1. § 8; Mart. ix. 55.) [R.W.] CHARTA. [liber.]

CHEIRONOMIA (x«p<woju;fe), a mimetic movement of the hands, which formed a part of the art of dancing among the Greeks and Romans. The word is also used in a wider sense, both for the art of dancing in general, and for any signs made with the hands in order to convey ideas. In gymnastics it was applied to the movements of the hands in pugilistic combat ; and it is used in connection with the term vx^^X^1'* (Athen. xiv. p. 629. b.; Hesych. vol. ii. p. 1547. Alb.; Herod, vi. 129 ; Aelian. V. II. xiv. 22 ; Dion Cass. xxxvi. 13 ; Pans. vi. 10. § 1; Heliod. Aethiop. iv. p. 73 ; Krause, Gymnastik und Agonistik, vol. i. c. 6.. § 33, vol. ii. c. 3. § 1.) [P. S.]

CHEIROTONIA (x«po7wfa). In the Athe­nian, assemblies two modes of voting were practised, the one by pebbles [psephus], the other by a show of hands (xeiporoveLV). The latter was employed in the election of those magistrates who were chosen in the public assemblies (apxatpe-<nat), and who were hence called x€lP°roj/')lTO't) in voting upon laws, and in some kinds of trials on matters which concerned the people, as upon irpo§o\ai and elffayyeXtai. We frequently find, however, the word ^<pi^€(r9ai used where the votes were really given by show of hands. (Lys. c. Eratosth. p. 124. 16. and p. 127. 8. ed. Steph. ; Dem. Olynth. i. p. 9.)

The manner of voting by a show of hands is said by Suidas (s>v. KarexeJpoToj/^cre*/) to have been as follows:—The herald said : " Whoever thinks that Meidias is guilty, let him lift up his hand." Then those who thought so stretched forth their hands. Then the herald said again : " Whoever thinks that Meidias is not guilty, let him lift up his hand ;" and those who were of this opinion stretched forth their hands. The number of hands was counted each time by the herald ; and the president, upon the herald's report, declared on which side the majority voted (avayopsvew ras XtipoTovias, Aesch. c. Ctesiph. § 2).

It is important to understand clearly the com­ pounds of this word. A vote condemning an accused person is Karax^tporovia : one acquitting him, ocTroxetpoTwia (Dem. c, Meid. pp. 516, 553, 583) ; e-rrtxeipoToz'eiy is to confirm by a ma­ jority of votes (Dem. dq Coron. pp. 235, 261) ; e'lriX^iporovia t&v vop&v was a revision of the laws, which took place at the beginning of every year ; 67ri%€fpoToyi'a t&v ap%<£i> was a vote taken in the first assembly of each Prytany on the con­ duct of the magistrates : in these cases, those who voted for the confirmation of the law, or for the. continuance in office of the magistrate, were said €irixeipoTOVtiv9 those on the other side arroxeipoTo- v£v (Dem. c. Timocr. p. 706 ; Harpocrat. and Suidas s. v. Kvpia, e'/c/cA^crta ; Dem. c. Theocrin. p. 1330) : cJtaxetpoToz/ia is a vote for one of two alternatives (Dem. c. Androtion. p. 596 ; c. Timocr. p. 707 ; c. Neaer. p. 1346) : a^nxetporo- vatv, to vote against a proposition. The com­ pounds of il/7]<£t£«=cr0cu have similar meanings. (Schomann, De Comitiis Atheniensium^ pp. 120, 125,231,251,330.) [P. S.]

CHELIDONIA (xe^&fwa), a custom ob­served in the island of Rhodes, in the month of

271

CHIROGRAPH UM.

Boedromiou, the time when the swallows returned. During that seasan boys, called x^'S^crrai, went from house to house collecting little gifts, ostensibly for the returning swallows (xeAi5(m£eu>), and sing­ ing a song which is still extant. (Athen. viii. p. 360 ; compare Ilgen, Opusc. Phil. i. p. 164, and Eustath. ad Odyss. xxi. sub fin.} It is said to have been in­ troduced by Cleobultis of Lindus, at the same period when the town was in great distress. The cheli- donia, which have sometimes been called a fes­ tival, seem to have been nothing but a peculiar mode of begging, which on the occasion of the re­ turn of the swallows was carried on by boys in the manner stated above. Many analogies may still be observed in various countries at the various seasons of the year. [L. S.]

CHELYS (x&w). [lyra.]

C.HEME (xiM)» a Greek liquid measure, the capacity of which (as is the case with most of the smaller measures) is differently stated by different authorities. There was a small cheme, which con­tained two cochlearia. or two drachmae, and was the seventy-second part of the cotyle, = "0068 of a pint English. (Rhem. Fann. v. 77.) The large cheme was to the small in the proportion of 3 to 2, Other sizes of the cheme are mentioned, but they

7 f

differ so much that we cannot tell with certainty what they really were. (Hussey, Ancient Weighty &c. ; Wurm, De Pond. &c.) [P. S.]

CHENISCUS. [navis.]

CHERNIPS (xe/P^)- [lustratio.]

CHEROSTAE (x'>lP*>0"rai)> [herbs.]

CHILIARCHUS. [exercitus.]

CHIRAMAXIUM (from x^P and fym£a), a sort of easy chair or " go-cart," used for invalids and children. (Petron. 28.)

CHIRIDOTA. [tunica.]

CHIROGRAPHUM (xe/p<fypa<£ov), meant first, as its derivation implies, a hand-writing or autograph. (Cic. Phil. ii. 4.) In this its simple sense, x€t/P in Greek and manus in Latin are often substituted for it.

Like similar words in all languages, it acquired several technical senses. From its first meaning was easily derived that of a signature to a will or other instrument, especially a note of hand given by a debtor to his creditor. In this latter case, it did not constitute the legal obligation (for the debt might be proved in some other way) ; it was only a proof of the obligation.

According to Asconius (in Verr. iii. 36) cJtiro-graphum, in the sense of a note-of-hand, was dis­tinguished from syngrapha ; the former was always given for money actually lent, the latter might ba a mere sham agreement (something like a bill of accommodation, though with a different object), to pay a debt which had never been actually in­curred. The chirographum was kept by tha creditor, and had only the debtor's signature ; the syngrapha, on the contrary, was signed and kept by both parties.

In the Latin of the middle ages (see Dii Fresne, s. v.) chirographum was used-to signify tribute col­lected under the sign-manual of a person in autho­rity, similar to the briefs and benevolences of former times in our own country. It was also used (see Blackstone, b. ii. c. 20), till very lately, in the English law for an indenture. Duplicates of deeds were written on one piece of parchment, with the word cMrograptmm between them, which was cut in two in a straight or wavy line, and the parts

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