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.\vhether it "be a certain thing that he demands, or a certain sum of money (Gaius, iv. 45, 47). The mtentio is incerta when the claim is not of a de- -finite thing or something, but is expressed "by the words quidquid) Sec. (Gaius, iv. 47, 136, 137.) If the mtentio is incerta, the condemnatio must be incerta. If the mtentio was certa, the con demnatio might he either certa or incerta (Gaius, iv. 50, 51). In the compilations of Justinian, where the expressions incerti actio, incerta actio, mcertum judicium occur, they specially apply to the actio praescriptis verbis, which contained an incerta intentio and condemnatio. (actio ; Sa- vigny, System, &c. vol. v. p, 74.) [G, L.]
KERUX (/a?py£). [caduceus ; fetialis.]
CESSIO BONORUM. [bonorum cessio.]
CESSIO IN JURE. [!n jure cessio.]
CESTRUM. [pictura, No. 6.]
CESTUS. 1. The thongs or bands of leather, which were tied round the hands of boxers, in order to render their blows more powerful. These .bands of leather, which were called iilclvtzs^ or t/j,dvT€S TTVKTiKoi, in Greek, were also frequently tied round the ami as high as the elbow, as is shown in the following statue of a boxer, the original of which is in the Louvre at Paris. (See Clarac, Musee d. Sculpt, Ant. et Mod. vol. iii. pi. 327. n. 2042.)
The cestus was used by boxers from the earliest times. When Epeius and Euryalus, in the Iliad (xxiii. 684), prepare themselves for boxing, they put on their hands thongs made of ox-hide (f/xav-ras evTjj.riTovs fiobs aypai)Xoio) • but it should be recollected, that the cestus in heroic times appears to have consisted merely of thongs of leather, and differed materially from the frightful weapons, loaded with lead and iron, which were used in later times. The different kinds of cestus were called by the Greeks in later times (U«/\.i'xa/, <T7re?pai /3oe£cu, ff(poupai^ and fjivpfj.TjKes: of which the /jLSLXixat gave the softest blows, and the pvpfjiyKes the most severe. The /ueiAixa/, which were the most ancient, are described by Pausanias .(viii, 40. § 3) as made of raw ox-hide cut into
thin pieces, and joined in an ancient manner ; they were tied under the hollow or palm of the hand, leaving the fingers uncovered. The athletae in the palaestrae at Olympia used the fjLei\ix<xt in practising for the public games (l^dvrcav t&v fj-aXaKwrepow, Paus. vi. 23. § 3) ; but in the games themselves, they usod those which gave the severest blows.
The cestus, used in later times in the public games, was, as has been already remarked, a most formidable weapon. It was frequently covered with knots and nails, and loaded with lead and iron ; whence Virgil (Aen. v. 405), in speaking of it, says,
" Ingentia septem Terga bourn plumbo insuto ferroque rigebant."
Statius (Theb. \i. 732) also speaks of niprantia plumbo teymina. Such weapons in the hands of a trained boxer, must have frequently occasioned death. The jaup/xTj/ces were, in fact, sometimes called 7tnoTopot, or " limb-breakers." Figures with the cestus frequently occur in ancient monuments. They were of various forms, as appears by the following specimens, taken from ancient monuments, of which drawings are given by Fabretti (De Column. Traj. p. 261).
2. cestus also signified a band or tic of any kind (Varr. De Re Rust. i. 8) ; but the term was more particularly applied to the zone or girdle of Venus, on which was represented every thing that could awaken love. (//. xiv. 214 ; Val. FL'icc. vi. 470.) When Juno wished to win the affections of Jupiter, she borrowed this cestus from Venus (II. L c.) ; and Venus herself employed it to captivate Mars. (Mart. vi. 13, xiv. 206, 207.)
CETRA, or CAETRA (icairpea, Hesych.), a target, i. e. a small round shield, made of the hide of a quadruped. (Isid. Orig. xviii. 12 ; Q. Curt, iii. 4.) It was also worn by the people of Spain (cetratae Hispaniae cohortes, Caes. B. C. i. 39, 48) and Mauritania. By the latter people it was sometimes made from the skin of the elephant. (Strab. xvii. p. 828.) From these accounts, ;md from the distinct assertion of Tacitus (Agric. 36) that it was used by the Britons, we may with confidence identify the cetra with the target of the Scottish Highlanders, of which many specimens of considerable antiquity are still in existence. It is seen "covering the left arms" (comp. Virg. A en. vii. 732) of the two accompanying figures, which are copied from a MS. of Prudentius, probably written in this country, and as early as the ninth century. (Cod. Cotton. Chop. c. 8.)
It does not appear that the Romans ever wore the cetra. But Livy compares it to the pdta of the Greeks and Macedonians, which was also a