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On this page: Ceadas – Cedit Dies – Celeres – Cella – Cellarius – Cenotathium – Censitor – Censor – Censuales



if any person recovered it from the purchaser by a better title, he would make it good to the pur­chaser ; and, in some cases, the cautio was for double the value . of the thing. (Dig. 21. tit. 2. s. 60.) This was, in fact, a warranty.

The word cautio was also applied to the release which a debtor obtained from his creditor on satis­fying his demand: in this sense cautio is equiva­lent to a modern receipt; it is the debtor's security against the same demand being made a second time. (Cic. Bmt. 5 ; Dig. 46. tit. 3. s. 89,. 94.) Thus cavere ab aliquo signifies to obtain this kind of security. A person to whom the usus fructus of a thing was given, might be required to give security that he would .enjoy and use it properly, and not waste it. (Dig. 7. tit. 9.)

Cavere is also applied to express the professional advice and assistance of a lawyer to his client for his conduct in any legal matter. (Cic. Ad Fam. i\\. 1, vii. 6, Pro Murena, c. 10.)

The word cavere and its derivatives are also used to express the provisions of a law, by which any thing is forbidden or ordered, as in the phrase,

•—'Gaiiium est lege, principalibus constitutionibus, &c. It is also used to express the words in a will, by which a testator declares his wish that certain things should be done after his death. The pre­ paration of the instruments of cautio was, of course, the business of a lawyer. [G. L.]

CEADAS (KeaSas) or CA.EADAS (KataSas), was a deep cavern or chasm, like the Barathron at Athens, into which the Spartans were accustomed to thrust persons condemned to death. (Thuc. i. 134 ; Strab. viii. p. 367 ; Paus. iv. 18. § 4; Suidas, s. v. BdpaQpov, KcuaSas, KeaSas.)

CEDIT DIES. [legatum.]

CELERES, are said to have been three hun­dred horsemen, who formed the body-guard of

•Romulus both in peace and war (Liv. i. 15 ; Dio-nys. ii. 13 ; Plut. Rom. 26). There can, however, be little doubt that these Celeres were not simply the body-guard of the king, but were the same as the cquites, or horsemen, a fact which is expressly stated by some writers (Plm. //. N. xxxiii. 2. s. 9), and implied by others (Dionys. L c.). [equites.] The etymology of Celeres is variously given. Some writers derived it from their leader Celer, who was said to have slain Remus, but most writers con­nected it with the Greek /ceA^s, in reference to the quickness of their service. (Serv. ad Virg. Aen. xi. 603.) Niebuhr supposes celeres to be identical with patricii, and maintains that the former word was the name of the whole class as distinguished from the rest of the nation {Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 331) ; but although the equites were at first unoubtedly chosen from the patricians, there seems no reason for believing that the word celeres was synonymous with patricii. .

The Celeres were under the command of a Tri-Imnus Celerum, who stood in the same relation to the king, as the magister eqiiitum did in a subse­quent period to the dictator. He occupied the second place in the state, and in the absence of the king had the right of convoking the comitia. Whether he was appointed by the king, or elected by the comitia, has been questioned, but the former is the more probable. (Lyd. De Mag. i. 14 ; Pom-vpon. de Orig. Jur. in Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2. §§ 15, 19 ; Dionys. iv. 71 ; comp. Becker, Handbucli der Rvmisck. Alterih. vol. ii. part i. pp. 239, 338.)

CELLA, in its primary sense, means a store-


room of any kind. (Vanv De Ling. Lot. v. 162. ed. Mliller.) Of these there were various de­scriptions, which took their distinguishing deno­minations from the articles they contained, as, for instance, the cella penuaria or penaria, the cello, olearia and cella vinaria. The slave to whom the charge of these stores was intrusted, was called ceilarius (Plant. Capt. iv. 2. 115 ; Senec. Ep. 122), or promus (Colum. xii. 3), or condus, " quia promit quod conditum est" (compare Hor. Carm. i. 9. 7, iii. 21. 8), and sometimes promus- condus and pro­curator peni. (Plaut. Pseud, ii. 2. 14.) This an­swers to our butler and housekeeper.

Any number of small rooms clustered together like the cells of a honeycomb (Virg. Gewy. iv. 164) were also termed cellae ; hence the dormitories of slaves and menials are called cellae (Cic. Phil. ii. 27 ; Columella, i. 6), and cellae familiaricae (Vitruv. vi. 10. p. 182) in distinction to a bed­chamber, which was cubiculum. Thus a sleeping-room at a publichouse is also termed cella. (Petron. 55.) For the same reason the dens in a brothel are cellae. (Petron. 8 ; Juv. Sat. vi. 128.) Each female occupied one to herself (Ibid. 122), over which her name and the price of her favours were inscribed (Senec. Controv. i. 2) ; hence cella in-scripta means a brothel. (Mart. xi. 45. 1.) Cello, ostiarii (Vitruv. vi. 10 ; Petron. 29), or janitoris (Suet. Vitell. 16), is the porter's lodge.

In the baths the cella caldaria, tepidaria, and frigidaria, were those which contained respectively the warm, tepid, and cold bath. [balneae.]

The interior of a temple, that is the part in­ cluded within the outside shell, o-yxos (see the lower woodcut in antae), was also called cella. There was sometimes more than one cella within the same peristyle or under the same roof; in which case they were either turned back to back, as in the temple of Rome and Venus, built by Hadrian on the Via Sacra, the remains of which are still visible ; or parallel to each other, as in the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus in the Capitol, In such instances each cell took the name of the deity whose statue it contained, as cello, Jovis, cella Junonis, cella Minervae. [A. R.J

CELLARIUS. [cella.]

CENOTATHIUM, a cenotaph (ictris and ) Was an empty or honorary tomb, erected as a memorial of a person whose body was buried elsewhere, or not found for burial at all. (Comp. Thuc. ii. 34; Virg. Aen. iii. 303.)

Cenotaphia were considered as religiosa, and therefore divini juris, till a rescript of the em­perors Antoninus and Verus pronounced them not to be so. (Heinec. Ant. Rom. ii. 1.) [R. W,]

CENSITOR. [censor.]

CENSUALES. [censor.]

CENSOR (tiijltjttjs'), the name of two magis­trates of high rank in the Roman republic. Their office was called Censura (rifjLrjreia or rijj.7}ria). The Census, which was a register of Roman citizens and of their property, was first estab­lished by Servius Tullius, the fifth king of Rome. After the expulsion of the kings it was takeu by the consuls ; and special magistrates were not appointed for the purpose of taking it till the year b. c. 443. The reason of this alteration was owing to the appointment in the preceding year of tribuni militum with consular power in place of the consuls; and as these tribunes might be plebeians, the patricians deprived the consuls,

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