The Ancient Library

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On this page: Catasta – Cateia – Catella – Catena – Catervarii – Cathebra – Catillus – Catinus – Caupo – Cavaedium – Cavea – Kataskopes Graphe


rings and ropes, before the gates of a city, in such a manner that, when the enemy had come up to the gates, the portcullis might be let down so as to shut them in, and to enable the besieged to assail them from above. In the accompanying plan of the principal entrance to Pompeii, there are two sideways for foot passengers, and a road between them, fourteen feet wide, for carriages. The gates were placed at A, A, turning on pivots [cardo], as is proved by the holes in the pavement, which still remain. This end of the road was nearest to the town; in the opposite direction, the road led into the country. The portcullis was at B, B, and was made to slide in grooves cut in the walls. The sideways, secured with smaller gates, were roofed in, whereas the portion of the main road between the gates (A, A) and the portcullis (B, B) was open to the sky. When, therefore, an attack was made, the assailants were either excluded by the portcullis; or, if they forced their way into the barbican and attempted to break down the gates, the citizens, surrounding and attacking them from above, had the greatest possible facilities for im­peding and destroying them. Vegetius speaks of the " cataracta " as an ancient contrivance ; and it appears to have been employed by the Jews at Jerusalem as early as the time of David. (Psal. xxiv. 7, 9 ; comp. Jer. xx. 2. Sept.) [J. Y.]

KATASKOPES GRAPHE (tcaraffKo^s 7pa^^), an action brought against spies at Athens. If a spy was discovered, he was placed on the rack, in order to obtain information from him, and afterwards put to death. (Antiphanes, ap. Atlte-n. ii. p. 66, d.; Dem. De Cor. p. 272 ; Aeschin. c. Ctesipli. p. 616; Plut. Vit. dec. Orat. p. 848, a.) It appears that foreigners only were liable to this action; since citizens, who were guilty of this crime, were accused of TrpoSocria.

CATASTA. [sbrvu-s.]

CATEIA, a missile used in war by the Ger­mans, Gauls, and some of the Italian nations (Virg. Aen. vii. 741 ; Val. Flac. vi. 83; Aul. Gell. x. 25), supposed to resemble the aclis. (Serv. in Aen. I. g. ; Isid. Orig. xviii. 7.) It probably had its name from cwiting j and, if so, the Welsh terms catcti^ a weapon, cateia^ to cut or mangle, and catau^ to fight, are nearly allied to it. [J. Y.]

CATELLA. [catena.]

which are here shown. The links are also found so closely entwined, that the chain resembles

CATENA, dim. CATELLA (&\vffis, dim. aXvffiov, aXucri§ioz>), a chain. The- chains which were of superior value, either on account of the material or the workmanship, are commonly called catellae (aAtf«na), the diminutive expressing their fineness and delicacy as well as their minuteness. The specimens of ancient chains which we have in bronze lamps, in scales [libra] ,and in ornaments for the person, especially necklaces [MoNiLE],show a great variety of elegant and ingenious patterns. Besides a plain circle or oval, the separate link is often shaped like the figure 8, or is a bar with a circle at each end, or assumes other forms, some of



platted wire or thread, like the gold chains now-manufactured at Venice. This is represented in the lowest figure of the woodcut.

These valuable chains were sometimes given as rewards to the soldiers (Liv. xxxiv. 31) ; but they were commonly worn by women (Hor. Ep. i. 17. 55), either on the neck (irepl rbv Tpd^Aoj/ dAt|(noz>, Menander, p. 92, ed. Mein.), or round the waist (Plin. II. N. xxxiii. 12); and were used to suspend pearls, or jewels set in gold, keys, lockets, and other trinkets. [ J. Y.]

CATERVARII. [gladiatores.]

CATHEBRA, a seat; but the term was more particularly applied to the soft seats used by wo­ men, whereas sella signified a seat common to both sexes (inter femineas cathedras., Mart. iii. 63, iv. 79; Hor. Sat. i. 10. 91 ; Prop. iv. 5. 37). The cathedrae were, no doubt, of various forms and sizes ; but they usually appear to have had backs to them, as is the case in the one represented in the annexed woodcut, which is taken from Sir William Hamilton's work on Greek vases. On the cathedra is seated a bride, who is being fanned by a female slave with a fan made of peacock's feathers.

Women were also accustomed to be carried abroad in these cathedrae instead of in lecticae, which practice was sometimes adopted by effemi­nate persons of the other sex (seocta cervice feratur cathedra, Juv. Sat. i. 65 ;. compare ix. 51). The word cathedra was also applied to the chair or pulpit from which lectures were read. (Juv. Sat. vii. 203 ; Mart. i. 77.) Compare Bottiger, Sabina, vol. i. p. 35; Scheffer, De Re Vekicul. ii. 4.

CATILLUS. [catinus.]

CATINUS, or CATINUM, a large dish, on which fish and meat were served up at table. Hence Horace speaks of an angustus patinus as an indication of niggardliness on the part of the host. (Hor. Ep. ii 4. 77 ; Pers. iii. 11.) From this word came the diminutive catillus or catillum^ a small dish.

CAVAEDIUM. [domus.]

CAVEA. [theatrum.]

CAUPO. The nature of the business of a caupo is explained by Gains {Ad Edict. Provwc. Dig. 4. tit. 9. s. 5) : " caupo . . . mcrcedem accipit


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