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On this page: Cataluseos Tou Demou Gra – Cataphracti – Catapirater – Catapulta – Cataracta

£56 CATAPHRACTI.

(ra^iapxat) repair to the commander-in-chief, from whom they receive the watchword (^/xeToj/) and the general order,'? of the day, to be conveyed by them to their respective divisions.

When a camp is broken up,.at the first blast of the trumpet the soldiers strike the tents, and pack up the utensils ; at the second they load the mules and other beasts of burden, set fire to every thing which could prove serviceable to an enemy, and stand like coursers ready to start forward on a race ; the third gives the last warning that all things being now prepared every man must be in his place. Then the herald, standing at the right hand of the general, demands thrice if they are ready for war, to which they all respond with loud and repeated cheers that they are readj?-, and for the most part, being filled with martial ardour, anticipate the question, and raise their right hands on high with a shout. (B. J. iii. 5. § 4.) [W. R.] CATAGO'GIA (Karay&yicC). [ANAGOGIA.] CATAGRAPHA. [pictura.] CATA'LOGUS (icaraXoyos), the catalogue of those persons in Athens who were liable to regular military service. At Athens, those persons alone who possessed a certain amount of property, were allowed to serve in the regular infantry, whilst the lower class, the thetes, had not this privilege. Thus the former are called of e/c KaraX6yov (rrparevoj/-res, and the latter of e|o> rov KaraXoyov. (Xen. Hell. ii. 3. § 20.) Those who were exempted by their age from military service, are called by Demosthenes (De Synt. p. 167.) of virep -rbv KardXoyov. . It appears to have been the duty of the generals (ffrpar^yoi) to make out the list of persons liable to service [astrateias graphe], in which duty they were probably assisted by the demarchi, and sometimes by the flovXevrai. (Dem. c. Polycl. p. 1208.)

CATALUSEOS TOU DEMOU GRAPHE' (icaraXvcrecos rov S^uov ypa,$ii\ was an action brought against those persons who had altered, or attempted to alter, the democratical form of go­vernment at Athens. A person was also liable to this action who held any public office in the state after the democracy had been subverted, (Andoc. de Myst. p. 48.) This action is closely connected with the irpoSocrms ypaty-f) (eVt Trpo8oo~ia rrjs TroAecos", 3) ctt! KaraXvo~€i rov 5^uoi>, Demosth. c. Timocr. p. 748), with which it appears in some cases to have been almost identical. The form of proceeding was the same in both cases, namely, by el&ayyeXia. In the case of KaraXvcreais rov S'fyuov, the punishment was death; the property of the offender was confiscated to the state, and a tenth part dedicated to Athena. (Andoc. De Myst. p. 48.)

CATAPHRACTI (/caTctypa/cToi). 1. Heavy-armed cavalry, the horses of which were also co­vered with defensive armour (Serv..ao? Virg. Aen. xi. 771), whence they are called by Pollux (i. 140) 7rep{7re<£pa'y/ue2'of, The armour of the horses con­sisted either of scale armour, or of plates of metal, which had different names according to the parts of the body which they protected. Pollux (i. 140) speaks of the vrpOjUercoTriSiov, Traponnoz', 7rap??ioj>, /, irapaTrAsupiSioy, Trapa^ptSio^, Tra-Among many of the Eastern nations, who placed their chief dependence upon their cavalry, we find horses protected in this manner ; but among the Romans we do not read of any troops of this description till the later times of the

CATARACT A.

empire, when the discipline of the legions was de­stroyed, and the chief dependence began to be placed, on the cavalry.

This species of troops was common among the Persians from the earliest times, from whom it was adopted by their Macedonian conquerors. (Liv. xxxv. 48; xxxvii. 40.) In the army of the elder Cyrus, Xenophon (Cyr. vi. 4. § 1) says that the horses were protected by coverings for the forehead and chest (Trpo^ercoTrtSiois ko! TrpoffrepviSiois) • and the same was the case with the army of Arta-xerxes, when he fought with his younger brother. (Xen. Anab. i. 8. § 7.) Troops of this description were called clibanarii by the Persians (cataphracti equites, guos clibanarios dictitant Persae, Amm. Marc. xvi. 10 ; compare Lamprid. Aleoc. Sev. 56) We first read of cataphracti in the Roman army in the time of Constantine. (Amm. Marc. /. c.)

2. The word was also applied to ships which had decks, in opposition to Aphracti. [NAVis.J

CATAPIRATER (Ka.raireiparTjpta, jSoAk), the lead used in sounding (ei> r$ fioXifav), or fathom­ ing the depth of water in navigation. The mode of employing this instrument appears to have un­ dergone no change for more than two thousand years, and is described with exactness in the ac­ count of St. Paul's voyage and shipwreck at Me- lite. (Acts, xxvii. 28.) A cylindrical piece of lead was attached to a long line, so as to admit of being thrown into the water in advance of the vessel, and to sink rapidly to the bottom, the line being marked with a knot at each fathom, to mea­ sure the depth. (Isid. Orig. xix. 4 ; Eustath. in II. v. 396.) By smearing the bottom of the lead with tallow (unctum^ Lucilius, ap. Isid. I. c.), spe­ cimens of the ground were brought up, showing whether it was clay (Herod, ii. 5), gravel, or hard rock. [J. Y.J

CATAPULTA. [toumentum.]

CATARACTA (/carappaKT^s), a portcullis, so called because it fell with great force and a loud noise. According to Vegetius (De Re Mil. iv. 4), it was an additional defence, suspended by iron

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