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CASTRA.

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and left of the space allotted to the general, was as­signed on one side to a forum, and on the other, to the quaestor and his department (t<£ re T<x/.ua, Kal -rovTy %op?]7U«s). These are marked 7

tcus

and ft, but we are not told on which side they re-speciively stood.

Still further to the right and left of the praeto-rium in 9, 10, and 9', 10', looking respectively to­wards the forum and the quaestorium, were a body of cavalry, selected from the extraordinarii equites (o: tcov eiri\^Kr(av tinrewv cbrJ/^e/CTOt), and a body of cavalry serving as volunteers out of com­pliment to the general (/cat tivgs r£>v eQeXovTTjfibv orpareuo/xevajy rrj rwv inrdrwy %apm), analogous., probably, to the Evocati of later times. Back to back with these, looking towards the rampart, in 11, 1*2 and 11' 12', were quartered the foot-soldiers belonging to the same classes as the cavalry just named. On the march, these troops were always near the person of the consul and of the quaestor, and served as a sort of body-guard to them. Their number is nowhere specified, and hence the exact space required for their accommodation cannot be determined.

In 13 and 13', looking towards the quaestorium, praetorium, and forum, were quartered the re­mainder of the extraordinarii equites. Back to back with these, facing the ramparts in 14 and 14', were the remainder of the extraordmarii pedites. The spaces marked 15, 15' on the flanks of 13, 14, 13', 14', were assigned to foreign troops or to allies not included in the regular contingent, who might chance to be present (rots a.X\o(pv\ois kcu roTs etc tov Kaipov irpoffyiyvo{J,£i'ois en^juaxots1).

The form of the camp was an exact square (rerpa- •ywvov l(T6rr\svpov)9 the length of each side being 2017 Roman feet. • -. ••

The clear space between the ramparts smd the tents (intervalluni) was 200 feet, and this was of the greatest service in facilitating the marching in and out of the soldiers without crowding or confu­sion. Here, also, cattle and other booty were kept and guarded ; and the breadth was sufficient t© prevent any ordinary missile or fire-brand hurled into the camp from doing serious injury.

The principal street, stretching right across in front of the tents of the tribunes, was 100 feet wide and was named Principia. It will be ob­served that the lengthened lines of the ten turmae and manipuli in each division is intersected at the termination of the first five by a road fifty feet wide, called the Via Quintana.. The position of the remaining five viae in the fore-part of the camp, all of which intersect the Via Quintana at right angles, will be understood at once by in­specting the plan, the width of each being 50 feet.

When two consular armies encamped together \vithin the same rampart, two ordinary camps were, it may be said, applied to each other at the ends nearest to their respective praetoria. The two prae-toria faced in opposite directions, and the legions of the two consuls stretched their lines in front of each praetorium, so that the figure of the camp was now ho longer a square, but a rectangle, whose length was twice that of an ordinary camp, the breadth being the same.

Although the words of Polybius are, as a whole, so full and clear that we can have little difficulty in forming a distinct conception of the camp which fie describes and in delineating the different parts, it must not be concealed that he has altogether passed

CASTRA.

over many important points on which we should desire information, and that occasionally his lan­guage is not entirely free from ambiguity.

Under the head of omissions, we must note —

1. The absence of all information with regard to the manner in which the Velites were disposed of. These, at the time when Polybius wrote, amounted to 1200, or, at the lowest computation, to 1000 for each legion ; and taking the same number for the contingent of the Socii, we shall thus have a body of at least 4000 men unprovided for. It is true that he subsequently states, in a passage which we quote below, that the velites kept guard by night and by day along the whole extent of the rampart, and that they were stationed in bodies of ten to watch the gates. Hence some have supposed that the light-armed troops always bivouacked outside the camp ; others, that they occupied the intervalluni ; others, that, just as in the line of battle, they did not form a distinct corps, but were distributed among the hastati, principes, and triarii, according to a given ratio, so in like manner they were, in the camp, quartered along with those divisions to which they were at­tached in the field. The velites ceased to form a portion of the legion about the time of Marius, and consequently the later R.oman writers throw no light upon the question. It is remarkable, also, that while Polybius passes them over completely in the internal arrangements of his camp, so also he takes no notice whatsoever of them when describing the agmen or the order of march in which an army usually advanced.

2. No mention is made of the legati. Lipsius, in his plan of a Roman camp after Polybius, assigns to them a compartment next to the praetorium on the side opposite to that where the quaestorium stood ; but this is merely a conjecture.

3. The praefecti sociorum likewise are passed over. Since they corresponded among the troops of the allies to the tribum in the legions, it seems highly probable that their tents were ranged along a prolongation of the line on which the latter stood, and thus they also would be placed immediately opposite to and looking towards the soldiers under their immediate command.

4. The number of tents allowed to. each maniple or century is nowhere stated, and consequently the number of men in each tent is unknown, nor are we very distinctly told how the centurions and other officers of the infantry and cavalry inferior to the tribunes were provided for ; it is merely said that the ra^iapx01 in each maniple took the first tents on each side, that is, probably, at each end of the row which held one maniple.

5. With regard to the fortifications of the camp it is stated that the digging of the ditch (rafypeia) and the formation of the rampart (xa/oaKOTrou'a) upon two sides of the camp was assigned to the socii, each division taking that side along which it was quartered ; while the two remaining' sides were in like manner completed by the legionaries, one by each legipn. The work upon each side was portioned out among the maniples, the cen­turions acted as inspectors of the tasks performed by their respective companies, and the general superintendence was undertaken by two of the tribunes. The nature and the dimensions of the defences are not, however, specified. These con­sisted of a ditch (fossa), the earth from which was thrown inwards, and formed, along with turf and

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