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CASTRA.

tain Hyginus, a gromaticus or land surveyor, wlio flourished under Trajan and Hadrian, has left us a technical memoir on the art of castrametation as practised in his own day. To these some might feel inclined to add the remarks of Vegetius, who lived during the reign of Valentinian, but for reasons which are stated elsewhere [exercitus] it will be more safe to neglect him altogether.

We shall proceed to describe these two camps in succession, it being understood that the leading

statements with regard

to the first are taken di-

245

CASTRA.

rectly from Polybius, and those with regard to the second, from Hyginus, unless when the contrary is distinctly indicated. But while we endeavour to explain clearly all the parts of the camps themselves, we must refer to the article exercitus for every­thing that concerns the different kinds of troops, their divisions, their discipline, and their officers.

I. camp of polybius.

The camp described by Polybius is such as would be formed at the close of an ordinary day's

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