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On this page: Carpou Bike – Carrago – Carruca – Carrus – Carya – Caryatis


the Britons, the Gauls, the Cimbri, the Allobroges, and other northern nations. (Floras, i. 18, iii. 2,

3, and 10.) These, together with the carts of the more common form, including baggage-waggons, appear to have been comprehended under the term cam, or c«rra, which is the Celtic name with a Latin termination. The Gauls and Helvetii took a great multitude of them on their military expeditions ; and, when they were encamped, ar­ ranged them in close order, so as to form extensive lines of circumvallation. (Caes. Bell. Gall. i. 24, 26.) [J. Y.]

CARPOU BIKE7 (icapirov 6^07), a civil action under the jurisdiction of the thesmothetae, might be instituted against a farmer for default in pay­ment of rent. (Meier, Alt. Proc. p. 531.) It was also adopted to enforce a judicial award when the unsuccessful litigant refused to surrender the land to his opponent (Hudtwalcker, p. 144 ; Meier, Aft. Proc. p. 750), and might be used to determine the right to land (Harpocrat. s. -y., and Ovcrias ai'kt?), as the judgment would determine whether the plaintiff could claim rent of the defendant. [J. S. M.J

CARRAGO, a kind of fortification, consisting of a great number of waggons placed round an army. It was employed by barbarous nations, as, for instance, the Scythians (Trebell. Poll. Gattien. 13), Gauls [carpentum], and Goths (Ainm. Marc. xxxi. 20). Compare Veget. iii. 10.

Carrago also signifies sometimes the baggage of an army. (Trebell. Poll. Claud. 8 ; Vopisc. Aure-lian. 11.)

CARRUCA, a carriage, the name of which only occurs under the emperors. It appears to have been a species of rheda [rheda], whence Martial in one epigram (iii. 47) uses the words as synonymous. It had four wheels, and was used in travelling. Nero is said never to have travelled with less than 1000 carrucae. (Suet. Ner. 30.) These carriages were sometimes used in Rome by persons of distinction, like the carpenta [car­pentum], in which case they appear to have been covered with plates of bronze, silver, and even gold, which were sometimes ornamented with embossed work. Alexander Severus allowed senators at Rome'to use carrucae and rhedae plated with silver (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 43) ; and Martial (iii. 72) speaks of an aurea carntca which cost the value of a farm. We have no representations of carriages in ancient works of art which can be safely said to be carrucae ; but we have several representations of carriages ornamented with plates of metal. (See Inghirami, .Mbmm. Etrusch. iii. 18.23 ; Millingen, Uned. Mon. ii. 14.) Carrucae were also used for carrying women, and were then, as well, perhaps, as in other cases, drawn by mules (Dig. 34. tit. 2.



s. 13) ; whence Ulpian (Dig. 21. tit. 1. s. 38. § 8) speaks of mulae carrucariae.

CARRUS. [carpentum.]

CARYA or CARYATIS (icapva, Kapvarls), a festival celebrated at Caryae, in Laconia, in honour of Artemis Caryatis. (Hesych. s. v. Kapvai.) It was celebrated every year by Lacedaemonian maidens (Kapvarides) with national dances of a very lively kind (Paus.iii. 10. § 8 ; iv. 16. §5 ; Pol­lux, iv. 104), and with solemn hymns. [L. S.]'

CARYATIS (Kapvans), pi. CARYATIDES. From the notices and testimonies of ancient au­thors, we may gather the following account:—That Caryae was a city in Arcadia, near the Laconian border ; that its inhabitants joined the Persians after the battle of Thermopylae (Herod, viii. 26 ; Vitruv. i. 1. § 5); that on the defeat of the Persians the allied Greeks destroyed the town, slew the men, and led the women into captivity ; and that, as male figures representing Persians were after­wards employed with an historical reference instead of columns in architecture [ atlantes ; persae], so Praxiteles and other Athenian.artists employed female figures for the same purpose, intending them to express the garb, and to commemorate the disgrace of the Caryatides, or women of Caryae. (Vitruv. Z. c. ; Plin. //. A'", xxxvi. 45 and 11.) Figures of Caryatides are exceedingly common in the remains of ancient architecture. The following-specimen is taken from Miiller's Denkmaler der alien Kunst.

After the subjugation of the Caryatae, their territory became part of Laconia. The fortress

&p'iov9 Steph. Byz.) had been consecrated to Artemis (Diana Caryatis, Serv. in Virg. Ed. viii. 30), whose image was in the open air, and at whose annual festival (Kapvans eoprrj, Hesych.) the La­ conian virgins continued, as b3fore, to perform a dance of a peculiar kind, the execution of which was called Kapvarifcw. (Pans. iii. 10. § 8 ; iv. 16. § 5 ; Lucian, De Salt.) [J. Y.J

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