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On this page: Carnifex – Carpentum

242 CARNIFEX.

Carneios, which, according to Sosibius (ap. Atlien. xiv. p. 635), was instituted Olymp. xxvi.; although Apollo, under the name of Carneios, was worshipped in various places of Peloponnesus, particularly at Amyclae, at a very early period, and even before the Dorian migration. (Muller, Dor. i. 3. § 8. and ii. 8. § 15.) Wachsmuth (Hellen. Altert/tumsk. ii. p. 582, 2d ed.), referring to the passage of Athe-naeus, above quoted, thinks that the Carneia had long before been celebrated; and that when, in Olymp. xxvi., Therpander gained the victory, musical contests were only added to the martial solemnities of the festival. But the words of Athenaeus, who is the only authority to which Wachsmuth refers, do not allow of such an inter­pretation, for no distinction is there made between earlier and later solemnities of the festival, and Athenaeus simply says, the institution of the Carneia took place Olymp. xxvi. ('Eyez/ero §e twj/ Kapvdcav Karcf, rty eKrrjv Kal tiKOffrfyv a, ws 3,<a(ri§i.6s (prjcnv, sv rw irtpl The festival began on the seventh day of the month of Carneios = Metageitnion of the Athenians, and lasted for nine days. (Athen. iv. p. 141; Eustath. ad 11. xxiv. sub fin.; Pint. Symp. viii. 1.) It was, as far as we know, a warlike festival, similar to the Attic Boedromia. During the time of its celebration nine tents were pitched near the city, in each of which nine men lived in the manner of a military camp, obeying in every­thing the commands of a herald. Muller also sup­poses that a boat was carried round, and upon it a statue of the Carneian Apollo ('ATrJAAw trreya-ucmas), both adorned with lustratory garlands, called Si/cTjAoj/ aTe/x(u,<x'na?oz', in allusion to the passage of the Dorians from Naupactus into Pelo­ponnesus. (Dorians, i. 3. § 8. note s.) The priest conducting the sacrifices at the Carneia, was called 'AyTjT-fc, whence the festival was sometimes de­signated by the name 'AyTjT^ia or 'AyTj-fopeiov (Hesych. s. v. 3A.yi?)T6peioi>'); and from each of the Spartan tribes five unmarried men (Kapvedrai) were chosen as his ministers, whose office lasted four years, during which period they were not al­lowed to marry. (Hesych. s. v. Kapi/earai.) Some of them bore the name of ^r&c^uAo^cfyiot. (Hesych. s. v. ; compare Bekker, Anecd. p. 205.) Ther­pander was the first who gained the prize in the musical contests of the Carneia, and the musicians of his school were long distinguished competitors for the prize at this festival (Muller, Dor. iv. 6. § 3), and the last of this school who engaged in the contest was Pericleidas. (Pint. De Mus. 6.) When we read in Herodotus (vi. 106, vii. 206) and Thucydides (v. 54, and in other places) that the Spartans during the celebration of this festival were not allowed to take the field against an enemy, we must remember that this restriction was not peculiar to the Carneia, but common to all the great festivals of the Greeks: traces of it are found even in Homer. (Od. xxi. 258^ &c.)

Carneia were also celebrated at Cyrene (Calli- mach. Hymn, in Apott. 72. seq.), in Thera (Calli- inach. I. c.; Pindar, Pylli. v. 99. seq.), in Gythion, Messene, Sicyon, and Sybaris (Pans. iii. 21. § 7> and 24. § 5, iv. 33. § 5, ii. 10. § 2; Theocrit. v. 83; compare Miiller's Orcliom. p. 327). [L. S.J

CARNIFEX, the public executioner at Rome, who put slaves arid foreigners to death (Plaut 'BaccL iv. 4. 37; Capt.v. 4. 22), but no citizens, who were punished in a mariner different from

CARPENTUM.

slaves. It was also his business to administer the torture. This office was considered so disgraceful, that he was not allowed to reside within the city (Cic. Pro RaUr. 5), but he lived without the Porta Metia or Esquilina (Plaut. Pseud. i. 3. 98), near the place destined for the punishment of slaves (Plaut. Cas. ii. 6. 2; Tacit. Ann. xv. 60; Hor. Epod. v. 99), called Sestertium under the emperors. (Plut. Galb. 20.)

It is thought by some writers, from a passage in Plautus (Rud. iii. 6. 19), that the carnifex was anciently keeper of the prison under the triumviri capitales ; but there does not appear sufficient .authority for this opinion, (Lipsius, Excurs. ad Tacit* Ann, ii. 32.)

CARPENTUM, is one of the earliest kind of Roman carriages, of which we find mention. (Liv. i. 34.) It was the carriage in which Roman matrons were allowed to be conveyed in the public festal pro­cessions (Liv. v. 25 ; Isid. Orig. xx. 12) ; and that this was a considerable privilege is evident from the fact, that the use of carriages in the city was entirely forbidden during the whole of the republic. The privilege of riding in a carpentum in the public festivals, was sometimes granted as a special pri­vilege to females of the imperial family. (Dion Cass. Ix, 22, 33; Tac. Ann. xii. 42.) The form of this carriage is seen in the following medal struck in honour of the elder Agrippina after her death.

The carpentum was also used by private persons for journeys ; and it was likewise a kind of state carriage, richly adorned and ornamented. (Prop. iv. 8.23; Juv. viii. 147, ix. 132.)

This carriage contained seats for two, and some­times for three persons, besides the coachman. (Liv. i. 34 ; Medals.) It was commonly drawn by a pair of mules (carpentum mulare, Lamprid. Heliog. 4) ; but more rarely by oxen or horses, and sometimes by four horses like a quadriga. For grand occa­sions it was very richly adorned. Agrippina's carriage, as above represented, shows painting or carving on the panels, and the head is supported by Caryatides at the four corners.

W^hen Caligula instituted games and other so­lemnities in honour of his deceased mother Agrip­pina, her carpentum went in the procession. (Suet. Valig. 15.) This practice, so similar to ours of sending carriages to a funeral, is evidently alluded to in the alto-rilievo here represented, \vhich is preserved in the British Museum. It has been taken from a sarcophagus, and exhibits u close carpentum drawn by four horses. Mercury, the conductor of ghosts to Hades, appears on the front, and Castor and Pollux with their horses on the side panel.

:Carpenta. or covered carts, were much used by

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