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On this page: Carceres – Carchesium – Cardo – Carina – Carmentalia – Carneia



behind tlie antepagmentum (marmoreo aeratus


accusation, till the time of trial;.and also as. a place of execution, to which purpose the Tullianum was specially devoted. Thus, Sallust (I.e.} tells ns that Lentulus, aii accomplice of Catiline, was hanged there. Livy also (xxix. 22) speaks of a conspirator being delegatus in Tullianum, which in another passage (xxxiv. 44), is otherwise ex­pressed by the words in inferiorem demissus car­eer em^ necatusque.

The same, part of the pris&n was also called " robur," if we may judge from the words of Festus: — Robur in carcere dicitur is locus^ quo praecipitatur maleficorum genus. This identity is further shown by the use made of it; for it is spoken of as a place of execution in the following passages: — In robore et tenebris exspirare (Liv. xxxviii. 59 ; Sallust, 1. c.\ Robur et saosum (sc. Tarpeium) minitari (Tacit. Ann. iv. 29). So also we read of the catenas et Italum rdbwr. (Hor. Carm. ii. 13. 18.) [R. W.]

CARCERES. [circus.]

CARCHESIUM (/capx^o-ioi/). 1. A beaker or drinking-cup, which was used by the Greeks in very early times, so that one is said to have been given by Jupiter to Alemena on the night of his visit to her. (Pherecydes, p. 97—100, ed. Sturtz.) It was slightly contracted in the middle, and its two handles extended from the top to the bottom. (Athen. xi. p. 474 ; Macrob. Sat. v, 21. )^ It was much employed in libations of blood, wine, .milk, and honey. (Sappho, Frag. 70, ed. Neue ; Virg. Georg. iv. 380, Aen. v. 77 ; Ovid* Met. vii. 246; Stat. Acldll. ii. 6.) The annexed woodcut repre­ sents a magnificent carchesium, which was pre­ sented by Charles the Simple to the Abbey of St. Denys. It was cut out of a single agate, and

richly engraved with representations of bacchana­ lian subjects. It held considerably more than a pint, and its handles were so large as easily to admit a man's hand. . •• •

2. The upper part of the mast oi a ship.


CARDO (boup, tfrpofevs, ffrpiy, 7177X1;-uos}, a hinge, a pivot. The first figure in the an­nexed woodcut is designed to show the general form of a door, as we find it with a pivot at the top and bottom (a, 6) in ancient remains of stone, marble, wood, and bronze. The second figure re­presents a bronze hinge in the Egyptian collection of the British Museum : its pivot (1>) is exactly cylindrical. Under these is drawn the threshold of a temple, or other large edifice, with the plan of the folding doors. The pivots move in holes fitted to receive them (5, 6), each 'of which is in an angle

stridens in limine cardo, Virg. Ciris, 222; Eurip. Phoen. 114—116, Schol. ad loc.}.

The Greeks and Romans also used hinges ex­actly like those now in common use. Four Roman hinges of bronze, preserved in the British Museum, are here shown.

The form of the door above delineated makes it manifest why the principal line laid down in sur­ veying land was called " cardo " (Festus, s. v. De- cumanus ; laid. Orig. xv. 14); and it further ex­ plains the application of the same term to the North Pole, the supposed pivot on which the heavens revolved. (Varr. De Re Rust. i. 2 ; Ovid, Ex Panto, ii. -10. 45.) ^ The lower extremity of the universe was conceived to turn upon another pivot corresponding to that at the bottom of the door (Cic. De Nat. Dear. ii. 41; Vitruv. vi. 1, ix. 1); and the conception of these two principal points in geography and astronomy led to the ap­ plication of the same term to the East and West also, (Lucan. v. 71.) Hence our "four points of the compass " are called by ancient writers quatuor cardines orbis terrarum^ and the four principal winds, N. S. E. and W., are the cardinales venti. (Serv. ad Aen. i. 85,) . [J. Y.]

CARINA. [navis.]

CARMENTALIA, an old Roman festival ce­lebrated in honour of the nymph Carmenta or Carmentis, for an account of whom see Diet, of Bioff. s. v. Camenae. This, festival was celebrated annually on the llth and the .15th of January, and no other particulars of .it are recorded except that Carmenta was invoked in it as Pastvorta and Antevorta, epithets which had reference to, her power of looking back into the past and forward into the future. The festival was chiefly observed by women. (Ov. Fast, i, 63.4 ; Macrob. Sat. i. 7; Gell. xvi. 16;- Serv. ad Vivg* Aen. viii. 339 ; Har-timg, Die Religion der Romer, vol. ii. p., 199.) ^

CARNEIA (Kapeia), a great national festival, celebrated by the Spartans in honour of ApoUo


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