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form. (Athen. xi. p. 474, e ; Pollux, vi. 96 ; Plin. //. A7", xxxiv. 19. § 25.) The canthams was the cup sacred to Bacchus (Macrob. Sat. v. 21 ; Plin. PI. N. xxxiii. 53), who is frequently represented on ancient vases holding it in his hand, as in the following woodcut, which is taken from a painting on an ancient vase. (Millingen, Pein-tures Antiques, pi. 53.)
CANTICUM. In the Roman theatre, between the first and second acts, flute music appears to have been introduced (Plant. Pseudol. i. 5. 160), which was accompanied by a kind of recitative, performed by a single actor, or if there were two, the second was not allowed to speak with the first. Thus Diomedes (iii. p. 489. ed. Putsch.) says : — " In canticis una tantum debet esse persona, aut si duae fuerint, ita debent esse, ut ex occulto una audiat nee colloquatur, sed secum, si opus fuerit, verba faciat." In the caiiticum, as violent gesticulation was required, it appears to have been the custom, from the time of Livius Andronicus, for the actor to confine himself to the gesticulation, while another person sang the recitative. (Liv. viii. 2 ; Lucian, De Saltat. 30 ; Isidor. Orig. xviii. 44.) The canticmn always formed a part of a Roman comedy. Diomedes observes that a Roman comedy consists of two parts, dialogue and canticum (Latinae comoediae duobus ta-ntum membris constant, diverbio et cantico). Wolf (De Canticis, p. 11) endeavours to show that cantica also occurred in tragedies and the Atellanae fabulae. There can be no doubt that they did in the latter ; they were usually composed in the Latin, and sometimes in the Greek language, whereas the other parts of the Atellane plays were written in Oscan.
CAPISTRUM ((£o/3§eid), a halter, a tie for horses, asses, or other animals, placed round the head or neck, and made of osiers or other fibrous materials. In representations of Bacchanalian processions the tigers or panthers are attached to the yoke by capistra made of vine-branches. Thus we read of the vite capistratae tic/res of Ariadne (Ovid, Epist. ii. 80 ; Sidon. Apoll. Carm. xxii. 23), and
they are seen on the bas-relief of a sarcophagus in the Vatican representing her nuptial procession. See the annexed woodcut.
The term (f>op§<sid was also applied to a contriv ance used by pipers (av\7jraT) and trumpeters to compress their mouths and cheeks, and thus to aid them in blowing. It is often seen in works of ancient art [chiridota], and was said to be the invention of Marsyas. (Simonides, Brunck. An. i. 122 ; Sophocles, ap. Cic. ad Ait. ii. 16 ; Aris- toph. Av. 862, Vesp. 580, Eq. 1147 ; Schol. ad 11} ' [J. Y.]
CAPITE CENSI. [caput.]
CAPITIS DEMINUTIO. [caput.]
CAPITIUM, a portion of a woman's dress, said by Varro to be so called, because it covers (capif) the breast. (Varr. L. L. v. 131, ed. M tiller, and De Vita P. R. iv. ap. Nonium, s. V. capitia ; comp. Gell. xvi. 7 ; Dig. 34. tit. 2. s. 24.) But the word itself would rather lead us to suppose that it was originally a covering for the head (capuf).
CAPITOLINI LUDI. [Luoi.]
CAPSA (dim. CA'PSULA), or SCRFNIUM, the box for holding books among the Romans. These boxes were usually made of beech-wood (Plin. //. N. xvi. 43. s. 84), and were of a cylindrical form. There is no doubt respecting their form, since they are often placed by the side of statues dressed in the toga. The following woodcut, which represents an open capsa with six rolls of books in it, is from a painting at Pompeii.
There does not appear to have been any difference between the capsa and the scrinium, except that the latter word was usually applied to those boxes which held a considerable number of. rolls (scrinia da magnis, Mart. i. 3). Boxes used for preserving other things besides books, were also called capsae (Plin. //. N. xv. 17. s. 18 ; Mart. xi» 8), while in the scrinia nothing appears to have been kept but books, letters, and other writings, :