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On this page: Candidatus – Candys – Canephoros – Canistrum – Cantabrum – Canterii – Cantharus



n, figure supporting a lamp (Mus. Borb. vii. pi. J 5), or of a figure, by the side of which the shaft is placed with two branches, each of which termi­nates in a flat disc, upon which a lamp was placed. A candelabrum of the latter kind is given in the preceding woodcut (Mus. Borb. iv. pi. 59). The stem is formed of a liliaceous plant ; and at the base is a mass of bronze, on which a Silenus is seated engaged in trying to pour wine from a skin which he holds in his left hand, into a cup in his right.

There was another kind of candelabrum, entirely different from those which have been described, which did not stand upon the ground, but was placed upon the table. These candelabra usually consist of pillars, from the capitals of which several lamps hang down, or of trees, from whose branches lamps also are suspended. The following wood­cut represents a very elegant candelabrum of this kind, found in Pompeii. (Mus. Borb. ii. pi. 13.)

The original, including the stand, is three feet high. The pillar is not placed in the centre, but at one end of the plinth, which is the case in al­most every candelabrum of this description yet

CANEPHOROS (/ccu^Jpos). When a sacri­fice was to be offered, the round cake (Tpo%ta <£0ois, ir6iravov, oA^j, inola sa/sa), the chaplet of flowers, the knife used to slay the victim, and sometimes the frankincense, were deposited in a flat circular basket (/caveo*/, canistrum\ and this was frequently carried by a virgin on her head to the altar. The practice was observed more espe­cially at Athens. When a private man sacrificed, either his daughter, or some unmarried female of his family, officiated as his canephoros (Aristoph. Ackarn. 241—252) ; but in the Panathenaea, the Dionysia, and other public festivals, two virgins of the first Athenian families were appointed for the purpose. Their function is described by Ovid (Met. ii. 713—715).

That the office was accounted highly honourable appears from the fact, that the resentment of Har-modius, which instigated him to kill Hipparchus, arose from the insult offered by the latter in for­bidding the sister of Harmodius to walk as cane­phoros in the Panathenaic procession. (Thucyd. vi. 56 ; Aelian, V. H. xi. 8.) An antefixa in the British Museum (see woodcut) represents the two canephoros approaching a candelabrum. Each of them elevates one arm to support the basket, while

found. The plinth is inlaid in imitation of a vine, the leaves of which are of silver, the stem and fruit of bright bronze. On one side is an altar with wood and fire upon it; and on the other a Bacchus riding on a tiger. (Becker, Gallus, vol. ii. p. 206, &c.)

CANDIDATUS. [ambitus.]

CANDYS («e£ySus), a gown worn by the Medes and Persians over their trowsers and other gar­ ments. (Xen. Cyr. i. '6. § 2, Anab. i. 5. § 8 ; Diod. Sic. xvii. 77.) It had wide sleeves, and was made of woollen cloth, which was either purple or of some other splendid colour. In the Persepolitan sculptures, nearly all the principal personages are clothed in it. The three here shown are taken from Sir R. K. Porter's Travels (vol. i. pi. ,°4). [J. Y.J

she slightly raises her tunic with the other. This attitude was much admired by ancient artists, Pliny (H. N. xxxvi. 4. s. 7) mentions a marble canephoros by Scopas, and Cicero (Verr. iv. 3) describes a pair in bronze, which were the exquisite work of Polycletus. [caryatis.] [J. Y.]

CANISTRUM. [canephoros.]

CANTABRUM, a standard used at the time of the Roman empire, and carried in festive pro­cessions. (TertulL Apol. 16 ; Mimic. Felix, 29.)

CANTERII is used by Vitruvius (iv._2) for the rafters of the roof, extending from the ridge to the eaves. [P. S.]

CANTHARUS (icdv0apos) was a kind of drinking-cup, furnished with handles (caritharus ansa, Virg. Ed. vi. 17 ; Hor. Carm. i. 20). It is said by some writers to have derived its narae from one Cantharus, who first made cups of this

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