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CANDELABRUM.

the carriage. (Xen. Ages. viii. 7; Plut. Ages. c. 19.) Homer calls this kind of basket Treipws. (II. xxiv. J90, 267; and Eustath. ad loc. Compare Sturtz, Lex. Xenopli. s. v. KdvaOpoy ; Scheffer, De Re Veliic. p. 68.)

CANCELLARIUS. [cancelli.]

CANCELLI, lattice-work, placed before a win­dow, a door-way, the tribunal of a judge, or any other plac3. (See e. g. Cic. pro Sest. 58 ; Varr. R. R. iii. 5 ; Ov. Am."\ii. 2. 64 ; Dig. 30. tit. 41. s. 10 ; 33- tit. 7. s. 10.) Hence was derived the word Cancellarius, which originally signified a porter, who stood at the latticed or grated door of the emperor's palace. The emperor Carimis gave great dissatisfaction by promoting one of his Can-cellarii to be Praefectus urbi. (Vopisc. Carin. 16.) The cancellarius also signified a legal scribe or secretary, who sat within the cancelli or lattice­work, by which the crowd was kept off from the tribunals of the judges. (Cassiod. Var. xi. 6.) The chief scribe or secretary was called Cancellarius /car5 e^oxV, and was eventually invested with judicial power at Constantinople ; but an account of his duties and the history of this office do not fall within the scope of the present work. From this word has come the modern Chancellor.

CANDE LA, a candle, made either of wax (cered) or tallow (sebacea), was used universally by the Romans before the invention of oil lamps (lucernae). (Varr. De Ling. Lat. v. 119, ed. Miil-ler; Martial, xiv. 43 ; Athen. xv. p. 700.) They used for a wick the pith of a kind of rush called scirpus (Plin. //. N. xvi. 70). In later times can-dela-j were only used by the poorer classes; the houses of the more wealthy were always lighted by lucernae (Juv. Sat. iii. 287 ; Becker, Gallus, vol. ii. p. 201).

CANDELABRUM, was originally a candle­stick, but was afterwards used to support lamps (Aux^oDxos), in which signification it most com­monly occurs. The candelabra of this kind were usually made to stand upon the ground, and were of a considerable height. The most common kind were made of wood (Cic. ad Qu. Fr. iii. 7 ; Martial, xiv. 44; Petron. 95 ; Athen. xv. p. 700) ; but those which have been found in Herculaneum and Pom­peii are mostly of bronze. Sometimes they were made of the more precious metals and even of jewels, as was the one which Antiochus intended to dedicate to Jupiter Capitolinus. (Cic. Verr. iv. 28.) In the temples of the gods and palaces there were frequently large candelabra made of marble, and fastened to the ground. (Museo Pio-Clem. iv. 1. 5, v. 1. 3.)

There is a great resemblance in the general plan and appearance of most of the candelabra which have been found. They usually consist of three parts: — 1. the foot ((Bdtns') ; 2. the shaft or stem (/muA.os) ; 3. the plinth or tray (Sitr/c^y), large enough for a lamp to stand on, or with a socket to receive a wax candle. The foot usually consists of three lions' or griffins' feet, ornamented with leaves; and the shaft, which is either plain or fluted, generally ends in a kind of capital, on which the tray rests for supporting the lamp. Sometimes we find a figure between the capital and the tray, as is seen in the candelabrum on the right hand in the annexed woodcut, which is taken from the Museo Dorbrmico (iv. pi. 57), and repre­sents a candelabrum found in Pompeii. The one on the left hand is also a representation of a

CANDELABRUM.

candelabrum found in the same city (Mus. Borb. vi. pi. 61), and is made with a sliding shaft, by which the light might be raised or lowered at pleasure.

The best candelabra were made at Aegina and Tarentum. (Pliri. //. TV. xxxiv. 6.)

There are also candelabra of various other forms, though those which have been given above are by far the most common. They sometimes consist of

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