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known when this lex was passed, nor what were its penalties. It appears from Cicero (Pro Sext. Hose. Amerino, c. 20), that the false accuser might "be branded on the forehead with the letter K, the initial of Kalrannia ; and it has been conjectured, though it is a mere conjecture, that this punishment was inflicted by the lex Remmia.
The punishment for calumnia was also exsilium, relegatio in insulam, or loss of rank (ordinis amis-sio) • but probably only in criminal cases, or in matters relating to a man's civil condition. (Paulus, Sentent. Recept. v. 1. 5, v. 4.11.)
In the case of actiones, the calumnia of the actor was checked by the calumniae judicium, the judi-cium contrarium, the jusjurandum calumniae, and the restipulatio; which are particularly described by Gaius (iv. 174—-181). The defendant might in all cases avail himself of the calumniae judicium, by which the plaintiff, if he was found to be guilty of calumnia, was mulcted to the defendant in the tenth part of the value of the object-matter of the suit. But the actor was not mulcted in this action, unless it was shown that he brought his suit without foundation, knowingly and designedly. In the contrarium judicium, of which the defendant could only avail himself in certain cases, the rectitude of the plaintiff's purpose did not save him from the penalty. Instead of adopting either of these modes of proceeding, the defendant might require the plaintiff to take the oath of calumnia, which was to the effect, Se non calumniae causa agere. In some cases the defendant also was required by the praetor to swear that he did not dispute the plaintiff's claim, calumniae causa. Generally speaking, if the plaintiff put the defendant to his oath (jusjurandum ei deferebat}, the defendant might put the plaintiff to his oath of calumny. (Dig. 12. tit. 2. s. 37.) In some actions, the oath of calumny on the part of the plaintiff was a necessary preliminary to the action. In all judicia publica, it seems that the oath of calumnia was required from the accuser.
If the restipulationis poena was required from the actor, the defendant could not have the benefit of the calumniae judicium, or of the oath of calumny ; and the judicium contrarium was not applicable to such cases,
The edict Be Calumniatoribus (Dig. 3. tit. 6.) applied generally to those who received money, calumniae causa, for doing an act or abstaining from doing an act. The edict applied as well to publica crimina as to pecuniariae causae ; for in stance in the matter of repetundae the edict ap plied to him who for calumnia received money on the terms of prosecuting or not prosecuting a person. This edict provided for some cases, as threats of procedure against a man to extort money, which were not within the cases provided for by the edict, Quod metus ca,usa (Dig. 4. tit. 2.) [G. L.]
CAMARA (Ka/jidpa), or CAMERA, properly signifies any arched or vaulted covering, and any thing with such a covering: Herodotus, for instance, calls a covered carriage Kdf^apa (i. 199). It is chiefly used in the two following senses : —
1. An arched or vaulted ceiling formed by semicircular bands or beams of wood, over the intervals of which a coating of lath and plaster was spread, resembling in construction the hooped awnings in use amongst us. (Vitruv. vii. 3 ; Sail. Cat. 58 ; Cic9 ad Q. Fr. iii. 1. § 1 ; comp. Plin. H. N.
xvi. 36. s. 64.) Under the emperors camarae wero formed with plates of glass (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 25. s. 64) ; sometimes also the beams were gilt, and the ceiling between them was made of ivory. (Propert. iii. 2. 10.)
2. Small boats used in early times by the people who inhabited the shores of the Euxine and the Bosporus, and called Kapdpai, from their having a broad arched deck. They were made with both ends alike so as to work in either direction without turning; and were put together without iron. They continued in use until the age of Tacitus, by whom their construction and uses are described. (Strab. xi. p. 495 ; Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg. 700 ; Aul. Gell. x. 25 ; Tac. Hist. iii. 47. Respecting the other uses of the word see Seiler and Jacobitz, Handworterlucli d. GriecJi. Sprache.} [P. S.]
CAMILLI, CAMILLAE, boys and girls, employed in the religious rites and ceremonies of the Romans. They were required to be perfect in form, and sound in health, free born, and with both their parents alive; or, in other words, according to the expression of the Romans, pueri sen puellae ingenui^ felicissimi, patrimi matrimique. The origin of these words gave rise to various opinions among the ancients. Dionysius supposed them to correspond to the xddfjuXoi among the Curetes and Corybantes ; others connected them with Cadmilus or Casmilus, one of the Samothra-cian Cabeiri; but we know nothing certain on the matter. Respecting the employment of the Camil-lus at Roman marriages, see matrimonium. (Dionys. ii. 21, 22 ; Van. L. L. vii. 34, ed. Miil-ler; Macrob. Sat. iii. 8 ; Serv, ad Virg. Aen. xi. 543; Festus, s. vv. Camillus, Cumera^ Flaminiua Camillus ; Hartung, Die Religion der Romer, vol. i. p. 157, vol. ii. p. 71.)
CAMP AGUS, a kind of shoe worn by the later Roman emperors. (Trebell. Poll. Gallien. 16, with the note of Salmasius.)
CAMPESTRE (sc. suUigar) was a kind of girdle or apron, which the Roman youths wore around their loins, when they exercised naked in the Campus Martins (Augustin. De Civ. Dei^ xiv. 17). The campestre was sometimes worn in warm weather in place of the tunic under the toga (campestri sub toga cinctus, Ascon. ad Cic. pro Scauro, p. 30. ed. Orell.; Hor. Ep. i. 11. 18.)
CAMPIDOCTORES were persons who taught soldiers their exercises. (Veget. i. 13.) In the times of the republic this duty was discharged by a centurion, or veteran soldier of merit and distinction. (Comp. Plin. Pan. 13.)
CANABUS (/caz/agos), was a figure of wood in the form of a skeleton, round which the clay or plaster was laid in forming models. Figures of a similar kind, formed to display the muscles and veins, were studied by painters in order to acquire some knowledge of anatomy. (Arist. Hist. Anim. iii. 5, De Gen. Anim. ii. 6; Pollux, vii. 164, x. 189; Suid. and Ilesych. s. v.; Miiller, Arch'dol. der Kunst, § 305. n. 7.)
CANALIS, and" the diminutive Canaticulus, which signify a water-pipe or gutter, are used also in architecture for any channel, such as the flirtings of a column, and the channel between the volutes of an Ionic capital (Vitruv. x. 14, iii. 3). [P. S.]
CANATHRON (icdvaQpov'), a carriage, the upper part of which was made of basket-work, or more properly the basket itself, which was fixed in