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On this page: Calix – Callis – Callisteia – Calones – Calumnia



rions, it was not worn by the superior officers. Hence the common soldiers, including centurions, were distinguished by the name of caligaii (Suet. Aug. 25, Vitett. 7) ; when Cicero therefore says of Pompey"mihi caligae ejus non placebant" {Ad Att. ii. 3), he merely uses the words to indicate his military power. Service in the ranks was also designated after this article of attire. Thus Marius was said to have risen to the consulship a caliga^ i. e. from the ranks (Sen. De Benef. v. 16), and Ventidius juventam inopem in caliga militari tole-rasse (Plin H. N. vii. 44). The Emperor Caligula received that cognomen when a boy, in conse­quence of wearing the caliga, which his father Ger-manicus put on his son in order to please the sol­diers. (Tacit. Ann. i. 41 ; Suet. Calig. 9.) The triumphal monuments of Rome show most dis­tinctly the difference between the caliga of the common soldier [arma] and the calceus worn by men of higher rank. [abolla ; ara.] The sole of the caliga was thickly studded with hob­nails (dam caligarii, Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 41, ix. 18 ; Juv. Sat. iii. 232, xvi. 25).

The caliga speculatoria (Suet. Calig. 52), made for the use of spies (specula-tores)^ was probably much lighter, than the ordinary shoe worn by the soldiers. [J. Y.]

CALIX (tfvAif, comp. Macrob. Sat. v. 21). 1. A small drinking-cup, constantly used at sym­posia and on similar occasions. It is frequently seen in paintings on ancient vases which, represent drinking-scenes, and when empty is usually held upright by one of its handles, as shown in the cut under symposium. (Xen. Si/mp. ii. 2G ; Cic. tusg. iii. 19 ; Plor. Serm. ii. 8. 35, &c.) 2. A vessel used in cooking (Varr. L. L. v. 127, ed. MUller ; Ov. Fast. v. 509.) 3. A tube in the aquaeducts attached to the extremity of each pipe, where it entered the castellum. [aquaeductus, p. 115, a.]

CALLIS, a beaten path or track made by the feet of cattle. (Serv. ad Virg. Aen. iv. 405 ; Isidor. Orig. xv. 16. § 20.) The sheep-walks in the mountainous parts of Campania and Apulia were the property of the Roman state ; and as they were of considerable value, one of the quaestors usually had these cattes assigned to him as his province, whence we read of the Gallium provincia. His principal duties were to receive the scriptura, or tax paid for the pasturage of the cattle, and to protect life and property in these wild and moun­tainous districts. When the senate wished to put a slight upon the consuls on one occasion they en­deavoured to assign to them as their provinces, the care of the woods (silvae) and sheep-walks (calles). (Tac. Ann. iv. 27 ; Suet. Goes. 19, Claud. 29; in the last passage the reading is doubtful.)

CALLISTEIA (/caAA.i<7Te?a), a festival, or per­haps merely a part of one, held by the women of Lesbos ; at which they assembled in the sanc­tuary of Hera, and the fairest received the prize of beauty. (Schol. ad II. ix. 128 ; Suidas, s. v. • Antholog. Pal. ix. 189 ; Athen. xiii. p. 610.)

A similar contest of beauty, instituted by Cyp-selus, formed a part of a festival celebrated by the Parrhasians in Arcadia, in honour of the Eleusi-nian Uemeter. The women taking part in it were called Xpvffo<p6poi. (Athen. xiii. p. 609.)

A third contest of the same kind, in which, however, men only partook, is mentioned by Athe-


naeus (1. c. ; compare Etymol. Magn. s. v.} as oc­curring among the Eleans in honour of Athena. The fairest man received as prize a suit of armour which he dedicated to Athena, and was adorned by his friends with ribbons and a myrtle wreath, and accompanied to the temple. From the words of Athenaeus (xiii. p. 610), who, in speaking of these contests of beauty, mentions Tenedos along with Lesbos, we must infer that in the former island also Callisteia were celebrated. [L. S.J

CALONES, the servants of the Roman sol­diers, said to have been so called from carrying wood (/caAa) for their use. (Festus, s. v.; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. vi. 1.) They are generally supposed to have been slaves, and they almost formed a part of the army, as we may learn from many passages in Caesar : in fact, we are told by Josephus that, from always living with the soldiers and being present at their exercises, they were inferior to them alone in skill and valour. The word calo, however, was not confined to this signification, but was also applied to farm-servants, instances of which usage are found in Horace (Epist. i. 14. 42 ; Sat.l 6. 103).

In Caesar this term is generally found by itself ; in Tacitus it is coupled and made almost identi­ cal with lioca. Still the calones and lixae were not the same : the latter, in fact, were freemen, who merely followed the camp for the purposes of gain and merchandise, and were so far from being in­ dispensable to an army, that they were sometimes forbidden to follow it (ne liocae sequerentur eocer- citum^ Sail. Bell. Jug. 45). Thus again we read of the liocae mercatoresque^ qui plaustris merces por- iabant (Hirtius, De Bell. Afr. 75), words which plainly show that the lixae were traders and dealers. Livy also (v. 8) speaks of them as carrying on business. The term itself is supposed to be connected with lixa, an old word signifying water, inasmuch as the lixae supplied this article to the soldiers: since, however, they probably furnished ready-cooked provisions (elixos cibos\ it seems not unlikely that their appellation may have some allusion to this circumstance. (See Sail. 1. c.} [R. W.]

CALUMNIA. Calumniari is defined by Marcian (Dig. 48. tit. 16. s. 1), Falsa crimina in-tendere j a definition which, as there given, was onty intended to apply to criminal matters. The definition of Paulus (Sentent. Recept. i. tit. 5) ap­plies to matters both criminal and civil: Galumni-osus est quisciens prudensque per fraudem negotium alicui comparat. Cicero (de Off. i. 10) speaks of " calumnia," and of the nimis callida et malitiosa juris interjwetatio, as things related. Gaius says, Calumnia in adfectu est, sicutfurti crimen; the criminality was to be determined by the intention.

When an accuser failed in his proof, and the reus was acquitted, there might be an inquiry into the conduct and motives of the accuser. If the per­son who made this judicial inquiry (jqui cognovit\ found that the accuser had merely acted from error of judgment, he acquitted him in the form non pro-basti; if he convicted him of evil intention, he de­clared his sentence in the words calumniatus es^ which sentence was followed by the legal punish­ment.

According to Marcian, the punishment for ca­lumnia was fixed by the lex Remmia, or, as it is sometimes, perhaps incorrectly, named, tho lex Memmia. (Val. Max. iii. 7. § 9.) But it is not

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