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The Fasti of Caesar have not come down to us in their entire form. Such fragments as exist may be seen in Grater's Inscriptiones, or more completely in Foggini's work, Fastorum Anni Romani . . Reliquiae. See also some papers by Ideler in the Berlin Transactions for 1822 and 1823.
The Gregorian Year.—~The Julian calendar supposes the mean tropical year to be 365d. 6h. ; but this, as we have already seen, exceeds the real amount by 11' 12", the accumulation of which, year after year, caused at last considerable inconvenience. Accordingly, in the year, 1582, Pope Gregory the XIII., assisted by Aloysius, Lilius, Christoph. Clavius, Petrus Ciaconius, and others, again reformed the calendar. The ten days by which the year had been unduly retarded were struck out by a regulation that the day after the fourth of October in that year should be called the fifteenth ; and it was ordered that, whereas hitherto an intercalary day had been inserted every four years, for the future three such intercalations in
the course of four hundred years should be omitted, viz., in those years which are divisible without remainder by 100, but not by 400. Thus, according to the Julian calendar, the years, 1600, 1700, 1800,1900, and 2000 were to have been bissextile ; but, by the regulation of Gregory, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900, were to receive no intercalation, while the years 1600 and 2000 were to be bissextile, as before. The bull which effected this change, was issued Feb. 24, 1582. The fullest account of this correction is to be found in the work of Clavius, entitled Romani Calendarii a Gregorio XIII. P. M. restituti Eocplicatio. As the Gregorian calendar has only 97 leap-years in a period of 400 years, the mean Gregorian year is (303 x 365 + 97 x 366) ~-400, that is 365d. 5h. 49' 12", or only 24" more than the mean tropical year. This difference in 60 years would amount to 24', and in 60 times 60, or 3600 years, to 24 hours, or a day. Hence the French astronomer, Delambre, has proposed that the years 3600, 7200, 10,800, and all multiples of 3600 should not be leap years. The Gregorian calendar was introduced in the greater part of Italy, as well as in Spain and Portugal, on the day named in the bull. In France, two months after, by an edict of Henry III., the 9th of December was followed by the 20th. The Catholic parts of Switzerland, Germany, and the Low Countries, adopted the correction in 1583, Poland in 1586, Hungary in 1587. The Protestant parts of Europe resisted what they called a Papistical invention for more than a century. At last, in 1700, Protestant Germany, as well as Denmark and Holland, allowed reason to prevail over prejudice ; and the Protestant cantons of Switzerland copied their example the following year.
In England the Gregorian calendar was first adopted in 1752, and in Sweden in 1753. In Russia, and those countries which belong to the Greek church, the Julian year, or old style as it is called, still prevails.
In this article free use has been made of Ideler's work Lelirbiicli der Chronologic. For other information connected with the Roman measurement of time, see astronomia ; dies ; horologium ; lustrum; nundinae ; saeculum. [T.H.K.]
CALIDA, or CALDA, the warm drink of the Greeks and Romans, which consisted of warm water mixed with wine, with the addition probably of spices. This was a very favourite kind of drink
with the ancients, and could always be procured at certain shops or taverns, called thermopolia (Plant. Cur. ii. 3. 13, Trin. iv. 3. 6, Rud. ii. 6. 45), which Claudius commanded to be closed at one period of his reign (Dion Cass. Ix. 6). The vessels, in which the wine and water were kept hot, appear to have been of a very elegant form, and not unlike our tea-urns both in appearance and construction. A representation of one of these vessels is given in the Museo Borbonico (vol. iii. pi. 63), from which the following woodcut is taken. In the middle of the vessel there is a small cylindrical furnace, in which the wood or charcoal was kept for heating the water ; and at the bottom of this furnace, there are four small holes for the ashes to fall through. On the right hand side of the vessel there is a kind of cup, communicating with the part surrounding the furnace, by which the vessel might be filled without taking off the lid ; and on the left hand side there is in about the middle a tube with a cock for drawing off the liquid. Beneath the conical cover, and on a level with the rim of the vessel, there is a moveable flat cover, with a hole in the middle, which closes the whole urn except the month of the small furnace.
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Though there can be no doubt that this vessel was used for the purpose which has been mentioned,
it is difficult to determine its Latin name ; but it was probably called authepsa [AuTHEPSA.J Pollux (x. 66) mentions several names which were applied to the vessels used for heating water, of which the tirvoXeSys, which also occurs in Lucian (Lexiph. 8), appears to answer best to the vessel which has been described above. (Bb'ttiger, Sctbi-jza, vol. ii. p. 34 ; Becker, Gallus, vol. ii. p. 175.)
CALIENDRUM, a peruque or wig, mentioned by Horace. (Serm. i. 8. 48.)
CALIGA, a strong and heavy shoe worn by the Roman soldiers. Although the use of this species of calceamentum extended to the centu-