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The form arid colour of the calceus were also among the insignia of rank and office. Those who were elevated to the senate wore high shoes like buskins, fastened in front with four black thongs (nigris pettibus, Hor. Sat. i. 6, 27) and adorned with a small crescent. (Mart. ii. 29; Juv. vii. .102.) Hence Cicero (Phil. xiii. 13), speaking of the assumption of the senatorial dignity by Asinius, says mutavit calceos. Among the calcei worn by senators, those called mullei^ from their resemblance to the scales of the red mullet (Isid. Or. xix. 14), were particularly admired; as well as others called alutae, because the leather was softened by the use of alum. (Mart. Juv. II. cc.; Lydus, de Mag. a. 32; Ovid, De Art. Am. iii. 271.) [J. Y.]
CALCULATOR (Xoyiffr^s) signifies a keeper of accounts in general, but was also used in the signification of a teacher of arithmetic; whence Martial (x. 62) classes him with the notarius or writing-master. The name was derived from calculi, which were commonly used in teaching arithmetic, and also in reckoning in general. [abacus.] Among the Greeks the \oyffit^s and ypa^arLffT^s appear to have been usually the same person.
In Roman families of importance there was a calculator or account-keeper (Dig. 38. tit. 1. s. 7), who is, however, more frequently called by the name of dispensator or procurator^ who was a kind of steward (Cic. ad Alt. xi. 1 ; Plin. Ep. iii. 19 ; Suet. Galb. .12, Vesp. 22; Becker, Gallus, vol. i. p. 109.)
CALCULI were little stones or pebbles, used for various purposes; such, for example, as the Athenians used in voting, or such as Demosthenes put in his mouth when declaiming, in order to mend his pronunciation. (Cic. De Orat. i. 61.) Calculi were used in playing a sort of draughts. [latrunculi.] Subsequently, instead of pebbles, ivory, or silver, or gold, or other men (as we call them) were used; but still called calculi. The calculi were licotores. (Sidon. Epist. viii. 12; Ovid. Trisi. ii. 477; Mart. Epig. xiv. 17. 2, xiv. 20.) Calculi were also used in reckoning, and hence the phrases calculum ponere (Colum. iii. 3), calculum subducere. (Cic. De Fin. ii. 19, &c.) [abacus.] [A. A.]
CALENDARIUM, or rather KALENDA'-RIUM, is the account-book, in which creditors entered the names of their debtors and the sums which they owed. As the interest on borrowed money was due on the Calendae of each month, the name Qi.Calendarium was given to such a book. (Senec. De Benef. i. 2, vii. 10.) The word was subsequently used to indicate a register of the days, weeks, and months, thus corresponding to a modern almanac or calendar.
1. greek calendar. — In the earliest times the division of the year into its various seasons appears to have been very simple and rude, and it would seem that there was no other division except that of summer (frepos) and winter (%eijiic6y). To these strongly marked periods there were afterwards added the periods of transition, viz. spring (eap) and autumn (oTrcopa), with certain subdivisions according to the different agricultural pursuits peculiar to each of them. As, however, the seasons of the year were of great importance in regard to agriculture, it became necessary to fix their beginning and end by con-
necting them with the rising or setting of certain stars. Thus Hesiod (Op. et Dies, 381) describes the time of the rising of the Pleiades as the time for harvesting (^/^tos), and that of their setting as the time for ploughing (&poros) ; the time at which Arcturus rose in the morning twilight as the proper season for the vintage (I. c. 607), and other phenomena in nature, such as the arrival of birds of passage, the blossoming of certain plants, and the like, indicated the proper seasons for other agricultural occupations ; but although they may have continued to be observed for centuries by simple rustics, they never acquired any importance in the scientific division of the year. [astronomia.]
The moon being that heavenly body whose phases are most easily observed, formed the basis of the Greek calendar, and all the religious festivals were dependent on it. The Greek year was a lunar year of twelve months, but at the same time the course of the sun also was taken into consideration, and the combination of the two (Gemin. Isag. 6 ; comp. Censorin. De Die Nat. 18 ; Cic. in Verr. ii. 52) involved the Greeks in great difficulties which rendered it almost impossible for them to place their chronology on a sure foundation. It seems that in the early times it was believed that 12 revolutions of the moon took place within one of the sun ; a calculation which was tolerably correct, and with which people were satisfied. The time during which the moon revolved around her axis, was calculated at an average or round number of 30 days, which period was called a month (Gemin. I. c.} ; but even as early as the time of Solon, it was well known that a lunar month did not contain 30 daj^s, but only 29^. The error contained in this calculation could not long remain unobserved, and attempts were made to correct it. The principal one was that of creating a cycle of two years, called rpierrjpis, or anmts magnuS) and containing 25 months, one of the two years, consisting of 12 and the other of 13 months. The months themselves, which in the time of Hesiod (Op. et Dies., 770) had been reckoned at 30 days, afterwards alternately contained 30 days (full months, irXypeis) and 29 days (hollow months, ko?a<u.) According to this arrangement, one year of the cycle contained 354, and the other 384 days,. and the two together were about 1\ days more than two tropical or solar years. (Gemin. 6 ; Censorin. 18). When this mode of reckoning was introduced, is unknown ; but as Herodotus (i. 32) mentions it, it is clear that it must have been before his time. The 7 5 days, in the course of 4 years, made up a month of 30 days, and such a month was accordingly inserted in every fourth year, and the cycle of- four years was called a Trej/raer^pis. (Censorin. I. c.) But a far more important cycle was the eweaer^pis, or the cycle of 8 years, for it was practically applied by the Greeks to the affairs of ordinary life. The calculation was this : as the solar year is reckoned at 365^- days, 8 such years contain 2922 days, and eight lunar years 2832 days ; that is, 90 days less than 8 solar years. Now these 90 days were constituted as three months, and inserted as three intercalary months into three different years of the eWeaer^pisy that is, into the third, fifth, and eighth. (Censorin.; Gemin. II. cc.) It should, however, be observed that Macrobius (Sat. i. 13) and Solinus (Polyhist. iii.) state that the three intercalary months were all added to the last year of the enneaeteris, which