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12. s. 55, xxxiv. 8. s. 19 ; see the articles on the artists above mentioned in the Dictionary of Biography.}
The principal ancient writers on this art, whose works Pliny used, were Antigonus, Menaeehmus, Xenocrates, Duris, Menander, and especially Pasiteles, who wrote mirabilia opera. (Plin. H. N. Elench. lib. xxxiii.) The most important modern works on the subject are the following : Winckel- inann, Werke, passim ; Millingen, Unedited Monu ments, ii. 1*2 ; Veltheim, Etwas ilber Memnon's Bilds'dide, Nero^s Smaragd, Toreutik, &c.; Quatre- mere de Quincy, Le Jupiter Olympien ; Welcker, Zeitscli. f. Gesch. u. Ausleg. d. alt. Kunst, vol. i. part 2. p. 280 ; Hirt, Ueber das Material, die Technik, &c., in the Amalilica, vol. i. p. 239. foil. ; MUller, Handb. d. Arcli'dologie der Kunst, §311) [P. S.]
CAERITUM TABULAE. [aerarii.]
CAESA R, a title of the Roman emperors, was originally a family name of the Julia gens ; it was assumed by Octavianus as the adopted son of the great dictator, C. Julius Caesar, and was by him handed down to his adopted son Tiberius. It continued to be used by Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, as members either by adoption or female descent of Caesar's family ; but though the family became extinct with Nero, succeeding emperors still retained the name as part of their titles, and it was the practice to prefix it to their own names, as for instance, Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus. When Hadrian adopted Aelius Varus, he allowed the latter to take the title of Caesar ; and from this time, though the title of Augustus continued to be confined to the reigning emperor, that of Caesar was also granted the second person in the state and the heir presumptive to the throne. (Eckhel, vol. viii. p. 367, &c.) [augustus.]
CALAMISTRUM. an instrument made of iron, and hollow like a reed (calamus'), used for curling the hair. For this purpose it was heated, the per son who performed the office of heating it in wood- ashes (cinis) being called cinifto, or cinerarius. (Hor. Sat. i. 2. 98; Heindorf, ad too.) This use of heated irons was adopted very early among the Romans (Plaut. Asin. iii. 3. 37), and became as common among them as it has been in modern times. (Virg. Aen. xii. 100.) In the age of Cicero, who frequently alludes to it, the Roman youths, as well as the matrons, often appeared with their hair curled in this manner (calamistmti). We see the result in many antique statues and busts. [J. Y.]
CALAMUS (KaXafjLos, Pollux, x. 15), a sort of reed which the ancients used as a pen for writing. (Cic. ad Aft. vi. 8 ; Hor. De Art. Poet. 447.) The best sorts were got from Aegypt and Cnidus. (Plin. //. N. xvi. 36, 64.) So Martial (xiv. 38), " Dat chartis habiles calamos Memphitica tellus." When the reed became blunt, it was sharpened with a knife, scalprum librarium (Tac. Ami. v. 8 ; Suet. VitelL 2) ; and to a reed so sharpened the epithet temperatus, used by Cicero, probably refers (Cic. Ad Qu. F. ii. 15, " calamo et atramento temperato res agetur "). One of the inkstands given under the article atramentum has a calamus upon it. The calamus was split like our pens, and hence Ausonius (vii. 49) calls it ftssipes or clovenfooted. [A. A.]
CALATHUS, dim. CALATHISCUS (icd\a-
Qus, KaXaOiffKOs}, also called rd\apos usually signified the basket in which women placed their work, and especially the materials for spinning. Thus, Pollux (x. 125) speaks of both rd\apos and Ka\a6os as rrjs yvvcuKwviT&os ffKevrj: and in another passage (vii. 29), he names them in connection with spinning, and says that the rdXapos and KaXaQio-uos were the same. These baskets were made of osiers or reeds ; whence we read in Pollux (vii. 173) Tr\eK€LV ra\dpovs Kal KaXaOio'Kous9 and in Catullus (Ixiv. 319) —
" Ante pedes autem candentis mollia lanae Vellera virgati custodiebant calathisci."
They appear, however, to have been made in earlier times of more valuable materials, since we read in Homer (Od. iv. 125) of a silver rdXapos. They frequently occur in paintings on vases, and often indicate, as Bottiger ( Vasengem. iii. 44) has remarked, that the scene represented takes place in the gynaeconitis, or women's apartments. In the following woodcut, taken from a painting on a vase (Millin, Peintures de Vases Antiques, vol. i. pi. 4), a slave, belonging to the class called quasillariae, is presenting her mistress with the calathus, in which the wool was kept for embroidery, &c.
Baskets of this kind were also used for other purposes (Bottiger, Sabina, vol. ii. pp. 252, 258), such as for carrying fruits, flowers, &c. (Ovid. Art. Am. ii. 264.) The name of calathi was also given to cups for holding wine (Virg. l£d. v. 71).
Calathus was properly a Greek word, though used by the Latin writers. The Latin word corresponding to it was qualus (Hor. Carm. iii. 12. 4), mquasillus (Festus s. Calathus ; Cic. Philipp. iii. 4 ; Prop. iv. 7. 37). From quasillus came quasillaria, the name of the slave who spun, and who was considered the meanest of the female slaves. (Petron. 132 ; Tibull. iv. 10. 3.) [Fusus ; tela.]
CALCAR (AiMs eyKwrp'is, Pollux, x. 12), a spur. The Greek name for spurs was taken from the flies, which infest horses with their stings : hence the verb fJLVtoiri&iv, to spur. (Xen. de Re Eq. viii. 5, x. 1, 2 ; Heliodor. ix. p. 432, ed. Commelin.) The Athenian gentry sometimes showed their conceit by walking about the Agora in spurs after riding (Theophrast. Char, xxi.) Spurs were early used by the Romans, as appears from the mention of them in Plautus (Asin. iii. 3.118) and Lucretius (v. 1074). They are likewise often alluded to by Cicero (De Orat. iii. 9, ad Att. vi. 1), Ovid (De Ponto, ii. 9. 38 ; iv. 2. 35), Virgil (ferrata calce, Aen. xi. 714), and subsequent Roman authors. [J. Y.]
CALCEUS, CALCE AMEN, CALCEA-MENTUM (foro&fywt, ?re5iAoy), a shoe or boot,