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On this page: Cadisci – Caduceus – Caducum – Cadus – Caelatura


were brought, and the advantages obtained by the successful party, we have no information. (Meier, Alt. Proc. pp. 45, 386.) [J. S. M. CADA'VER. [funus.]

CADISCI (KaSicncoL). [psephus.]

CADUCEUS (ttypuKeiov, Kvipfaiov, Thucyd. 53 ; Kypvicfitoj', Herod, ix. 100) was the staff or mace carried by heralds and ambassadors in time of war. (Pollux, viii. 138.) This name is also given to the staff with which Hermes or Mercury is usually represented, as is shown in the following figure of Hermes, taken from an ancient vase, which is given in Millings Peintures de Vases An­ tiques, vol. i. pi. 70.

The caduceus was originally only an olive branch with the (TTejjLfjLaTa which were afterward formed into snakes. (Miiller, Arcli'dologie der Kunst, p. 504.) Later mythologists invented tales about

these snakes. Hyginus tells us that Mercury once found two snakes fighting, and divided them with his wand ; from which circumstance they were used as an emblem of peace. (Compare Plin. H. N. xxix. 3.)

From caduceus was formed the word Caduceatorl which signified a person sent to treat of peace. (Liv. xxxii. 32 ; Nep. Hannib. 11 ; Amm. Marc. xx. 7 ; Gell. x. 27.) The persons of the Caduceatores were considered sacred. (Cato, ap. Fest. s. v. ; Cic. De Oral. ii. 46.) The Caduceus was not used by the Romans. They used instead verbena and sagmina, which were carried by the Fetiales. (Dig. i. tit. 8. s. 8.) [fetiales.]

CADUCUM. [bona caduca.]

CADUS (tcdiHos, /ccSSSos), a large vessel usually made of earthen-ware, which was used for several purposes among the ancients. Wine was fre­quently kept in it; and we learn from an author quoted by Pollux that the amphora was also called cadus (Pollux, x. 70, 71 ; Suidas, s. v. KaSos). The vessel used in drawing water from wells was called cadus (Aristoph. Eccles. 1003 ; Pollux, x. 31), or yav\6s. (Suidas, s. v. Tav\6s.) The name of cadus was sometimes given to the vessel or urn in which the counters or pebbles of the dicasts were put, when they gave their vote on a trial, but the


diminutive /mSicr/cos was more commonly used in this signification. [psephus.]

CAELATURA (ropeim/t^), a branch of the fine arts, under which all sorts of ornamental work in metal, except actual statues, appear to be included. The principal processes, which these words were used to designate, seem to have been of three kinds: hammering metal plates into moulds or dies, so as to bring out a raised pat­tern ; engraving the surface of metals with a sharp tool; and working a pattern of one metal upon or into a surface of another: in short, the various processes which we describe by the words chasing, damascening, &c. Millingen, who is one of the best authorities on such subjects, says " The art of working the precious metals either separately, or uniting them with other substances, was called toreutice. It was known at a very early epoch, as may be inferred from the shield of Achilles, the ark of Cypselus, and other productions of the kind." There is, however, some doubt whether, in their original meaning, the words ropeim/cr) and caelaiura described the first or the second of the above processes: but both etymology and usage are in favour of the latter view. The word ropsvco means originally to bore, to pierce by cutting, and the cognate substantives ropevs and ropos are ap­plied to any pointed instrument, such as the tool of the engraver (ropewr^s : see Seiler u. Jacobitz, Handworterbucli d. GriecJi. Spraclie, s. vv.). So in Latin, caelo (to chase), and caelum (the chasing tool), are undoubtedly connected with caedo (to cut). It may also be observed that for working metals by hammering other words are used, e'Aau-vziv, (T^up^AaretV, eKKpovew, xaA/ceuetj/, eoccu-dere, and that works in metal made by hammer­ing plates into a raised pattern are called wcl-yKvfya, and cKrvira [anaglypha], With regard to the usage of the terms, it is enough to remark, that a very large proportion of the ornamental works in metal, alluded to by the ancient writers, from Homer downwards, must have been executed by the process of engraving, and not of hammering. But, whichever process the terms may have been originally intended to designate, in practice both processes were frequently united. For all vessels made out of thin plates of metal, the process seems to have been first to beat out the plate into the raised pattern, and then to chase it with the graving tool. There is an example of this kind of work in the British Museum, noticed by Mil­lingen.

Another question has been raised, whether TopevriK'f) and caelaiura are precisely equivalent: but it is the opinion of the best writers on art that they are so, though Quatremere de Quincy and others suppose ropevriK-f) to refer to any work in relief, and even to chryselephantine statues. (See Garatoni, in Cic. Verr. iv. 23 ; Salmas. Exerc. ad Solin. p. 736, foil. ; Heyne, Antiquar. Aufsatze, ii. p. 127.) Quintilian (ii. 21) expressly dis­tinguishes caelatura and sculptura by saying that the former includes works in gold, silver, bronze, and iron, while the latter embraces, besides these materials, also wood, ivory, marble, glass, and gems. It must therefore be understood as an accommo­dated use of the term when Pliny says of glass, — " argenti modo caelatur." (H. N. xxxvi. 26. s. 66.)

The fact which is implied in the words just quoted, that silver was the chief material on which the caelator worked, is expressly stated by

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