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On this page: Bouleuseos Graphe – Bouleuterion – Bracae – Brasideia

BRACAE.

rrpu raveToj/: a statement which gives additional support to the opinion that Solon did not originate tho senate at Athens.

The number of tribes at Athens was not always ten ; an alteration took place in b. e. 306, when Demetrius Poliorcetes had liberated the city from the usurpation of Cassander. Two were then added, and called Demetrias, and Antigonis, in honour of Demetrius and his father. It is evident that this change, and the consequent addition of 100 members to the senate, must have varied the order and length of the prytanes. The tribes just mentioned were afterwards called Ptolemais and Attalis ; and in the time of Hadrian, who beau­ tified and improved Athens (Paus. i. 18. § 6), a thirteenth was added, called from him Hadrianis. An edict of this emperor has been preserved, whick proves that even in his time the Athenians kept up the show of their former institutions. (Hermann, Griech. Staatsalterth. § 125, &c. ; Schomann, De Comitiis Athemensium.} [R. W.]

BOULEUSEOS GRAPHE (/SouAe&rews 7pa<|>7]), an impeachment for conspiracy. BouAeu-o'ews1, being in this case- the abbreviated form of e7ri§ov\ev(recos, is the name of two widely different actions at Attic law. The first was the accusation of conspiracy against life, and might be instituted by the person thereby attacked, if competent to bring an action ; if otherwise, by his or her legal patron (Kvpios], In case of the plot having suc­ceeded, the deceased might be represented in the prosecution by near kinsmen (ol eWbs ave^/ioniros},

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or, if they were incompetent, by the itvpios, as above mentioned. (Meier, Att. Proe. p. 164.) The criminality of the accused was independent of the result of the conspiracy (Harpocrat.), and the penalty, upon conviction, was the same as that incurred by the actual murderers. (Andoc. De Myst. p. 46. 5.) The presidency of the court upon a trial of this kind, as in most s/kcu <poviKai, be­longed to the king arch on (Meier, Att. Proo. p. 312), and the court itself was composed o£ the ephetae, sitting at the Palladium, according to Isaeus and Aristotle, as cited by Harpocration, who, however, also mentions that the areiopagiss is stated by Deinarchus to have been the praper tribunal.

The other action, j3o.iM.6u<reo?s, was available upon a person finding himself wrongfully inscribed as a state debtor in- the registers, or rolls, which were kept by the different financial officers. Meier (Att. Proo. p. 339), however, suggests that a ma­ gistrate that had so offended, would probably be proceeded against at the zvBvvai, or ein%eipoTovia.i^ the two occasions upon which the public conduct of magistrates was examined ; so that generally the defendant in this action would be a private citizen that had directed such an insertion at his own, peril. From the passage in Demosthenes,, it seems doubtful whether the disenfranchise-ment (art/xm) of the plaintiff as a state-debtor was in abeyance while this action was pending. Demosthenes at first asserts (c. Aristoy. i. p. 778. 19), but after­ wards (p. 792. 1) argues that it was not. (See, however, Meier, Att. Proc. p. 340, and Bockh's note.) The distinction between this action and the similar one \J/eu§e77pct<|>'/js, is explained under the latter titfe. [J. S. M.]

BOULEUTERION. [boule, p. 212, &.]

BRACAE or BRACCAE (&>a|vpf$«)9 trow- pantaloons. These, as well as various other.

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BRASIDEIA.

articles of armour and of dress [AciNACES, arctjs, armilla], were common to all the nations which encircled the Greek and Roman population, ex­tending from the Indiaa to the Atlantic ocean. Hence Aristagoras, king of Miletus, in his inter, view with Cleomenes, king of Sparta, described the attire of a large portion of them in these terms: — " They carry bows, and a short spear, and go to battle in trowsers and with hats upon their heads." (Herod, v. 49.) Hence also the phrase Braccati militis arcus^ signifying that those who wore trowsers were in general armed with the bow. (Propert. iii. 3. 17.) In particular, we are informed of the use of trowsers or pantaloons among the following nations: — the Medes and Persians; the Parthians; the Phrygians; the Sacae ; the Sarmajtae; the Dad an s and Getae j the Teutones; the Belgae • tke Britons ; and the Gauls.

The Latin word braecae is the same as the Scottish " breeks " and the English "breaches.-' Corresponding, terms are used in all the- northern languages. Also the Cossack and Persian trowsers of the present day diifer hi no mate-rial respect fpom those which were anciently worn in the same countries. In ancient monuments we find the above-mentioned people constantly exhibited in trowsers, thus clearly distinguishing them from Greeks and Romans. An example is seen in the annexed group of Sajrmatia-n-s, taken from the co,-lumn of Trajan.

Trowsers were principally woollen ; but Agathia>s states (Hist. ii. 5) that in Europe they were also made- of linen aaielof leather ; probably the Asiatics made them of cotton and of silk. Sometimes they were striped (vhyatae., Propert. i\\ 1L 43), and ©rniamented with a woof of various colours (iron/ctAou, Xen. Anah. i. 5. § 8). The Greeks seem never to have worn them. They were also unknown at Rome during the republican period ; and in A. D. 69 Caecina gave great offence on his march into. Italy, because he wore braecae, which were re­ garded as tec/men barbarum. (Tac. Hist, ii, 20,) In the next century, however, they gradually game into use at Rome ; but they would appear never to have been generally worn, It i& recorded qf Alexander Severus that he wore- white byaecae, and not crimson ones (eocciiaeae\ as had beeTj the custom with preceding emperors. The use of in the city was forbidden by Hjonor.iiiis. (Lampri Alecc. Sever-.. 40.) ' [J. Y.}

BRASIDEIA (fycwi&ew), a festival c

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