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204 BOEOTARCHES.

be divided are the evdefffjioi and the 'd6e(rfj.oi. The first of these will include all causes arising from the nonfulfilment of a contract to which a penal bond was annexed, and those in which the law specified the penalty to be paid by the defendant upon conviction ; the second, all injuries of property which the law did not specify nominatim, but generally directed to be punished by a fine equal to twice the estimated damage if the offence was intentional, if otherwise by a bare compensation. (Meier, Att. Proc. p. 188, £c., p. 475, &c. ; Dem. c. Mid. p. 528.) Besides the general word /SAagrjs, others more specific, as to the nature of the case, are frequently added to the names of actions of this kind, as avopa7r6$a)v9 reTpaTrdScoz/, jUeraAAi/c^, and the like. The declaration of the plaintiff seems always to have begun with the words

*E€\a\l/e jite, then came the name of the defendant, and next a description of the injury, as ovk cbroSiSota c/j,ol to apyvptov in Demosthenes (Pro Phorm. p. 950. 21). The proper court was determined by the subject of litigation ; and when we con­sider that the damage done by Philocleon to the cake-woman's basket (Aristoph. Fesp.), and sup­posititious testimony given in the name of another, thereby rendering such person liable to an action,

•fyevSofiapTvpitoV (Dem. c. Aphob. iii. p. 849, 20), were equally /BAagcu at Attic law, the variety of the actions, and consequently of the jurisdictions under which they fell, will be a sufficient excuse for the absence of further specification upon this point, m [J.S. M.]

BOEDROMIA (ySorjSpd/^oc), a festival cele­ brated at Athens on the seventh da}^ of the month of Boedromion, in honour of Apollo Boedromius. (Miiller, Dor. ii. 8. § 5.) The name Boedromius, by which Apollo was called in Boeotia and other parts of Greece (Paus. ix. 17- §-1 ; Callimach. Hymn. Apoll. 69), seems to indicate that by this festival he was honoured as a martial god, who either by his actual presence or by his oracles afforded assistance in the dangers of war. The origin of the festival is, however, traced by dif­ ferent authors to different events in Grecian story. Plutarch (Thes. 27) says that Theseus, in his war against the Amazons, did not give battle till after he had offered a sacrifice to Phobos ; and, that in commemoration of the successful battle which took place in the month of Boedromion, the Athenians, down to his own time, continued to celebrate the festival of the Boedromia. According to Suidas, the Etymol. Magn. and Euripides (Ion. 59), the festival derived its name and origin from the cir­ cumstance that when, in the reign of Erechtheus, the Athenians were attacked by Eumolpus, Xuthus or (according to Philochorus in Harpocration, s. v.) his son Ion came to their assistance, and procured them the victory. Respecting the particulars of this festival nothing is known except that sacrifices were offered to Artemis. (Comp. Spanheim, ad Callim. Hymn, in Apoll. 69.) [L. S.]

BOEOTARCHES (BoLvrdpx'ns, or Eoiwrdp-%os). It is proposed under this head to give a brief account of the Boeotian constitution as well as of the Boeotarchs.

The Boeotians in ancient times occupied Arne in- Thessaly. (Thuc. i. 12.) Sixty years after the taking of Troy they were expelled by the Thes-salians, and settled in the country then called Cad-meis, but afterwards Boeotia. This country, during occupation of it, was divided into several

BOEOTARCHES.

states, containing each a principal city, with ita j-vvreXeis or ^/^uopoi (inhabitants of the same fj.o'tpa, or district) living around it. Of these greater states, with dependent territories, there seem to have been in former times fourteen. — a

* 7

number which frequently occurs in Boeotian le­gends. (Pans. ix. 3. § 4.) The names are dif­ferently given by different writers on the subject ; we know, however, for certain that they formed a confederacy called the Boeotian league, with Thebes at its head, the dependencies of which city formed about a third part of the whole of Boeotia. These dependent towns, or districts, were not immedi­ately connected with the national confederacy, but with the neighbouring chief city, as Cynoscephalae was with Thebes. In fact, they were obliged to furnish troops and money, to make up the con­tingent furnished by the state to which they be­longed, to the general confederacy. (Arnold, ad Thuc. iv. 76.) Of the independent states Thu-cydides (iv. 93) mentions seven by name ; and gives us reasons for concluding that, in the time of the Peloponnesian war they were ten or twelve in number, Thebes being the chief. Plataea had withdrawn from them, and placed itself under the protection of Athens as early as b.c. 519 ; and in b. c. 374, Thespiae, another member of the league, was destroyed by the Thebans. (Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 396 ; Thuc. iii. 55.)

Each of the principal towns of Boeotia seems to have had its /3ouA7j and stj/xos. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. § 29.) The /BouArj was presided over by an archon, who probably had succeeded to the priestly func­tions of the old kings ; but possessed little, if aity, executive authority. The polemarchs, who, in treaties and agreements are mentioned next to the archon, had some executive authority, but did not command forces ; e.g. they could imprison (Xen. Hell. I. c.), and they directed the levies of troops But besides the archon of each separate state, there was an archon of the confederacy — &pxftn/ *v Koii/cS bojwtw;', most probably always a Theban. (Bockh, Inscr. 1593.) His name was affixed to all alliances and compacts which concerned the whole confederacy, and he was president of what Thucy-dides (v. 38) calls the four councils, who directed the affairs of the league (airav rb Kvpos e%ou<n). On important questions they seem to have been united ; for the same author speaks of them as rt /30iM.77, and informs us that the determinations of the Boeotarchs required the ratification of this body before they were valid. The Boeotarchs themselves were properly the military heads of the confederacy, chosen by the different states ; but we also find them discharging the functions of an ex­ecutive in various matters. In fact, they are re­presented by Thucydides (v. 38) as forming an alliance with foreign states ; as receiving ambassa­dors on their return home ; as negotiating with envoys from other countries ; and acting as the^ representatives of the whole league, though the jSouArj refused to sanction the measures they had resolved on in the particular case to which we are now alluding. Another instance in which the Boeotarchs appear as executive is their interference with Agesilaus, on his embarking Irum Aulis for Asia (b.c. 396), when they prevented him of­fering sacrifice as he wished. (Pint. Ages. 6 ; Xen. Hell. iii. 4. § 4.) Still the principal duty of the Boeotarchs was of a military nature: thus they led into the field the troops of their respective states ;

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