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were witho?it the beard. The philosophers,, however, generally continued the old badge of their profession, and their ostentation in so deing gave rise to the saying that a long beard does not make a philosopher (irwy&voTpofyia. fyiXoffofyov ov Troje?), and a man, whose wisdom stopped with has beard, was called ew ttwjwvos <ro(p6s. (Compare GelL ix. 2 ; Quint, xi. 1). The Romans in early times wore the beard uncut, as we learn from the insult offered by the Gaul to M.. Papirius (Liv. v. 41), and from Cicero (Pro CaeL 14) ; and according to Varro (De Re Rust ii. 11) and Pliny (vii. 59),, the Roman beards were not; shaven till b. c. 300,, when P. Ticinius Maenas brought over a barber from Sicily ; and Pliny adds, that the first Roman who was shaved (rasus) every day was Scipio Africanus. His custom, however, was soon followed, and shaving became a regular thing. The> lower orders, then; as now, were not always able to dp the same,,and hence the jeers of Martial (vii;. 95, xii. 59).. In the later times of the republic there were many who shaved the beard only par-^ tially, and trimmed it, so as to give it an ornamental form.; to•.them the terms bene barbati (Cic. Catil. ii. 10) and barbatuli (Cic. ad Att. i. 1-4, 16, Pro CaeL.14) are applied. When in mourning all the higher as well as the lower orders let their beards gn-ow,.
In the general way in Rome at this time, a long beard (barba promissa^ Liv. xxvii. 34) was considered a mark of slovenliness and squalor. The censors, L. Veturius and P. Licinius, compelled M. Livaus-, who had been, banished, on his restoration to the city, to-be shaved, and to lay aside his dirty appearance (tonderi et squalorem deponere\ and then,, but not till then, to come into the senate, &c. (Liv. xxvii. 34.) The first time of shaving was regarded as the beginning of manhood, and the day on; which this took place was celebrated as a festival. (Juv. Sat* iii. 186.) There was no particular time fixed for this- to be done. Usually,, however,, it was done when the young-Roman assumed: the toga virilis (Suet. Calig. 10). Augustus did it in his 24th year ; Caligula in his 20th. The hair cut off on such occasions was consecrated to. some god. Thus Nero put his up in a gold box, set with1 pearls,,, and dedicated it to Jupiter Capitolinus. (Suet. Ner. 12.)
With the emperor Hadrian the beard began to revive (Dion Cass. Ixviii. 15). Plutarch says that the emperor wore it to hide some scars-on his face. The practice afterwards became common,, and till the time of Constantine the Great, the emperors appear in busts and coins with beards. The Romans let their beards grow in time of mourning ; so Augustus did (Suet. Aug. 23) for the death of Julius Caesar, and the time when he had it shaved off he made a season of festivity. (Dion Cass. xlviii. 34 ; comp. Cic.. in Verr. ii. 12.) The Greeks, on the other hand, on such occasions shaved the beard close;.. Tacitus (Germ. c. 3) says that the Catti let their hair and beard grow, and would not have them cut till they bad slain an enemy (Compare Becker, CkamMes, vol.. ii.
p. 387, &c.)
barbehs. The Greek name for a barber was Kovpevs, and the Latin tonsor.. The term employed in modern European languages is derived from the low Latin larbatoriits, which is found in Petronius. The barber of the ancients was a far more important personage than his modern repro-
sentative., Men- had not often the necessary implements for the various operations of the toilet ; combs,, mirrors, perfumes, and tools for clipping, cutting^, shaving, &s. Accordingly the whole process had to be performed at the barber's, and hence the great concourse of people who daily gossipped at the> tonsbrina, or barber's shop. Besides the-duties of a barber and hairdresser, strictly s» called, the ancient tonsor discharged other offices. He was also a nail-parer. He was, in fact, much what the English barber was when he extracted teeth,. as« well as cut and dressed hair. People who kept the necessary instruments for all the different operations, generally had also slaves expressly for the purpose of performing them. The business of the barber was threefold. First there was the cutting of hair: hence the barber's question, ttcos ae Keipca (Plut. De Garrul. 13). For this purpose he used various knives of different sizes and shapes, and degrees of sharpness : henee Lucian (Adv. Indoct. c. 29), in enumerating the apparatus of a barber's shop, mentions ir\r)Bos axaipio'iuv (/Jidxaipa, ^a%afpis,, Kovpis are used also,, in. Latin cutter) ; but scissors, ^aA-is, Snr\7j fj.dxaipjz (Pollux,, ii. 32; in Latin • forfe^ axioia} were used too. (Compare Aristoph. AoJiarn. 848 ; Lucian, Pis* c: 46.) Ma%cu/)a was the usual word. Irregularity and unevenness of the hair was considered a great blemish, as appears generally, and from Horace (Sat.i. 3. 31, andJZpist. i. L 94), and accordingly after the hair-cutting the uneven hairs were pulled out by tweezers, an operation to which Pollux (ii. 34) applies the term. irapa^yeffOai. So the hangers-on on great men, who wished to look young^ were accustomed to pull out tlie grey hairs for them. (Aristi Eq. 908.) This was considered, however^ a mark of effeminacy. (Gell. vii. 12 ; Cic. Pro Rose. Com. 7.) The person who was to be operated on by the barber had a rough cloth (w/uoAij>oi', involucre in Plautus, Capt. ii. 2. 17) laid on his shoulders, as now, to keep the hairs off his dress, &c. The- second part of the business was shaving (radere, rasitare,. £upe?y). This was done with a |up<fc, a novacula (ILamprid. Heliog. c. 31), a razor (as-we, retaining the Latin root, call it), which he kept in a case, ^Krj, £vpo6r)Kfi, ^vpodoKys,. "- a razor- case " (Aristoph. Thesm. 220 ; Pollux,, ii. 32 ; Petron. 94). Some who would not submit to the operation of the razor used instead some powerful depilatory ointments, or plasters, as psilotliron. (Plin. xxxii. 10. 47 ; ctoida Creta^ Martial, vi. 93. 9 ; Venetum lutum^ iiL 74 ; d-ropax^. iii. 74 ; x. 65.) Stray hairs which escaped the razor were pulled out with small pincers or tweezers (volsellae, rpixohdSiov). The third part of the barber's work was to pare the nails of the hands, an operation which the Greeks expressed by the words ovvx'iCziv and uttqwx^w (Aristoph. Eq. 706 ; and Scltol. ; Theophrast. Charact. c.. 26 ; Pollux, ii. 146). The instruments used for this purpose were called bvvxiorrtyia^ sg. fjiaxaipia. (Pollux, x. 140.) This practice of employing a man expressly to pare the-nails explains Plautus's humorous description of the miserly Euclio (Aulul. ii. 4. 34) : —
" Quin ipsi quidero. tonsor ungues demps,ei?a,t, Collegit, omnia. abstulit praesegmina,"
Even to the miser- it did not occur to pare Ms nails himself, and' save the money he would have to pay; but . onlv to collect the parings in hop^ of staking