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the lower ones by the aperture at -B, which were .placed immediately over the hypocaust E ; the praefurnion of which is seen in the transverse section, at F in the lower vcu-t. There were thirty-two of these cells arranged in two rows over the hypocaust, sixteen on each side, and all communicating with each other ; and over these a similar number similarly arranged, which com municated with those below by the aperture at D. The parting walls between these cells were like- wise perforated with flues, which served to dis- seminate the heat all around the whole body of water. When the water was sufficiently warm, It was turned on to the baths through pipes conducted likewise through flues in order to prevent the doss of temperature during the passage, and the vacuum was supplied by tepid water from the range above, which was replenished from the piscina ; exactly upon the principle represented in the drawing from the Thermae of Titus, ingeniously applied upon a much larger scale. (The most important modern works on the Roman baths are the following: Winckelmann, numerous passages in his works.; the descriptions of the Roman baths by Cameron, Lond. 1772, and Palladio and Scamozzi, Vicenza, 1785 ; Stieglitz, ArclidoUgie, d.er Baukunst, vol. ii. p. 267, &c.; Hirt, Lehre der Gebaude, p. 233, <&c.; WemineimeTi.JEntiuurfe und Erg'dnzungen antiker Geb'dude, Carlsruhe., 1.822, part 1 ; the editors of Vitruvius, especially S.chneider, vol. ii. pp. 375— 391; for the baths of Pompeii, Bechi, Mus. Bor- hon. vol. ii. pp. 45—.52; Gell, Pompeiana; Pom peii in the Lib. Ent. Know. ; and for the best summary of the whole subject, Becker, Gallus, vol. ii. p. 11, &c.) [A. R.]
BALTEUS, or BA'LTEA in the plural (reAa/Ko*'), a belt, a shoulder-belt, a baldric, was used to suspend the sword ; and, as the sword commonly hung beside the left hip, its belt was supported by the right shoulder, and passed obliquely over the breast, as is seen in the beautiful cameo here introduced from the Florentine Museum. In the Homeric times the Greeks also
used a belt to support the shield ; and this second belt lay over the other, and was larger and broader .than it (II. xiv. 404—406) ; but as this shield-belt was found inconvenient, it was superseded by the invention of the Carian oxavov [clipeus.] The very early disuse of the shield-belt accounts
for the fact, that this part of the ancient armour is never exhibited in paintings or sculptures. A third -use <of the 'i>alteus was to suspend the quiver, and sometimes together with it the bow. (Nernes. Cyneg. 91.) The belt was usually made of leather, but was ornamented with .gold, silver, and precious stones, and on it subjects of ancient art were frequently embroidered or embossed. (Herod, i. 171 ; xp&reos reAa//^, Od. xi. 610; fya€iv6s, II. xii. 401 ; Virg. Aen. v. 312.) The belts of the Roman emperors were also magnificently adorned, and we learn from inscriptions that there was a distinct officer — the baltearius— who had the charge of them in the imperial palace. (Tre-bell. Poll. Gallien. 1£.)
BALTEUS, in architecture. Vitruvius ap plies the term " baltei" to the bands surrounding the volute on each side of an Ionic capital, (De Arcli. iii. 5. ed. Schneider ; Genelli, Briefe uber Vitruv. ii. p. 35.) [columna.] Other writers apply it to the praecinctiones of an amphitheatre. (Calpurn. Ed. vii. 47 ; Tertullian, De Spectac. 3 ; amphitheatrjjm). In the amphitheatre at Verona the baltei are found by measurement to be 2^ feet high, the steps which they enclose being one foot two inches high. [J, Y.]
BARATHRON (j3c£pa0po*/), also called ORUG-MA Copvy/jLa), was a deep pit at Athens, with hooks on the sides, into which criminals were cast. It was situate in the demus KetptaSat. Jt is mentioned as early as the Persian wars, and continued to be employed as a mode of punishment in the time of the orators. The executioner was called 6 €irl rep opvyfjLa.Tt. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Plut. 433; Harpocrat. s.vv..; Herod, vii. 133 ; Xen. Hell. i. 7. § 21 ; Lycurg. c. Leocrat. p. 221 ; Deinarch. c. Dem. p. 49 ; Wachsmuth, HeUen. Alterthumsk. vol. ii. p. 204,2nd edit.) It corresponded to the Spartan Ceadas. [ceadas.]
BARBA (Traycw, yeveiov, viri\vf\^ Aristoph. Lysist. 1072), the beard. The fashions which have prevailed at different times, and in different countries, with respect to the beard, have been very various. The most refined modern nations regard the beard as an encumbrance, without beauty or meaning ; but the ancients generally cultivated its growth and form with special attention ; and that the Greeks were not behind-hand in this, any more than in other arts, is sufficiently shown by the statues of their philosophers. The phrase 7r<yywz/oTpo</>€«>, which is applied to letting the beard grow, implies a positive culture. Generally speaking, a thick beard, irtiycoi/ /3a6vs, or Sacrus, was considered as a mark of manliness. The Greek philosophers were distinguished by their long beards as a sort of badge, and hence the term which Persius (Sat. iv. 1) applies to Socrates magister bafbatus. The Homeric heroes were bearded men. So Agamemnon, Ajax, Menelaus, Ulysses (//. xxii. 74, xxiv. 516, Od. xvi. 176). According to Chrysippus, cited by Athenaeus (xiii. p. 565), the Greeks wore, the beard till the time of Alexander the Great, and he adds that the first man who was shaven was called ever after Kopo-r,^ " shaven" (from /cetpw). Plutarch (Thes. c. 5) says that the reason for the shaving was that they might not be pulled by the beard in battle. The custom of shaving the beard continued among the Greeks till the time of Justir.ian, and during that period even the statues of the philosophers