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BALNEAE.

a round or oval basin (\ovr-fjp or Xovr-fipiov}^ rest­ing on a stand (vir6crTa.TOv}^ by the side of which those who are bathing are represented standing undressed and washing themselves, as is seen in the following woodcut taken from Sir W. Hamil­ton's vases. (Tischbein, i. pi. 58.) The word AMMONIA upon it shows that it belonged to a public bath.

The next woodcut is also taken from the same work (i. pi. 59), and represents two women bath­ing. The one on the right hand is entirely naked, and holds a looking glass in her right hand ; the one on the left wears only a short kind of -^irdiviov. Eros is represented hovering over the bathing vessel.

Besides the \ovrripes and Kovr'fjpia there were also the vessels for bathing, large enough for per­sons to sit in, which, as stated above, are called a.ffdlA.u'Oot by Homer and irve\ot by the later Greeks (Schol. ad AristopJi. Equit. 1055 ; Hesych. s. v. Hva\os ; Pollux, vii. 166, 168). In the baths there was also a kind of sudorific or vapour bath called irvpia or irvpiar'fjpioj', which is men­tioned as early as the time of Herodotus (iv. 75). (Compare Pollux, vii. 3 68 ; Athen. v. p. 207, f., xii. p. 519, e.; Pint. Cim. 1.)

The persons who bathed probably brought with them strigils, oil, and towels. The strigil, which was called by the Greeks GrXtyyis or |u<TTp was usually made of iron, but sometimes also of other materials. (Plut. Inst. Lac. 32 ; Aelian, xii. 29.) One of the figures in the preceding woodcut is represented with a strigil in his hand ;

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JALNEAE.

several strigils are figured below. The Greeks also used different materials for cleansing or wash­ing themselves in the bath, to which the general name of pv/jl/jlo, was given, and which were sup-Dlied by the fiaXavzvs. (Aristoph. Lysistr. 377.) This pv/jLfAa usually consisted of a lye made of lime or wood-ashes (/collet), of nitrum, and of fuller's earth (77) /ci^coAia, Aristoph. Ran. 710 and Schol.; Plat. Rep. iv. p. 430).

The bath was generally taken shortly before the or principal meal of the day. It was the practice to take first a warm or vapour, and after­wards a cold bath (Plut. de primo frig. 10 ; Pans, ii. 34. §2), though in the time of Homer the. cold aath appears to have been taken first and the warm afterwards. The cold water was usually poured on the back or shoulders of the bathers by the /cus or his assistants, who are called 7rapa%v-rat. (Plat. Rep. i. p. 344 ; Lucian, .Deraos#£. En-< com. 16. vol. iii. p. 503 ; Plut.de Invid. 6, Apophth. Lac. 49.) The vessel, from which the water was poured, was called apvrcuva. (Aristoph. Equit.' 1087 ; Theophr. Char. 9.) In the first of the pre­ceding woodcuts a Trapaxi'/TT/s is represented with an apvrawa in his hands.

Among the Greeks a person was always bathed at birth, marriage, and after death [ fun us] ; whence it is said of the Dardanians, an Illy-rian people, that they bathe only thrice in their lives, at birth, marriage, and after death. (Nicol/ Bamasc. ap. Stob. v. 51. p. 152, Gaisf.) The water in which the bride was bathed (Xovrpbv vv(j.fyiKQVi Aristoph. Lysistr. 378) at Athens, was: taken from the fountain of Kallirrhoe, which was called from the time of Peisistratus 'Ewea/cpouvosv (Thucyd. ii. 15.) Compare Pollux, iii. 43 ; Har-pocrat. s. v. Aovrpo<p6pos, who says that the water, was fetched by a boy, who was the nearest rela­tion, and that this boy was called \ovrpo^)6pos. He also states that water was fetched in the same way to bathe the bodies of those who had died un­married, and that on the monuments of such, a boy was represented holding a water-vessel (vSpia). Pollux (I. c.), however, states that it was a female who fetched the water on such occasions, and De­mosthenes (c. Leochar. p. 1089. 23 ; compare p. 1086. 14. &c.) speaks of ^ \ovrpo<p6pos on the monument of a person who had died unmarried. In remains of ancient art we find girls represented as \ovrpo<p6poi9 but never boys. (Brdnsted, Brief Description of thirty-two ancient Greek Vases^ pi. 27. The best account of the Greek baths is given by Becker, Charikles, vol. ii. pp. 135—146, pp. 459—462.)

Roman Baths, — The Romans, in the earlier periods of their history, used the bath but seldom, and only for health and cleanliness, not as a luxury. Thus we learn from Seneca (Ep. 86) that the ancient Romans washed their legs and arms daily, and bathed their whole body once a week. (Comp. Cat. de Lib. Educ. ap. Non. iii. s. v. Ephippium; Colum. R. R. i. 6. § 20.)

It is not recorded at what precise period the use of the warm bath was first introduced amongst the Romans ; but we learn from Seneca (I. c.) that Scipio had a warm bath in his villa at Literrmm ; which, however, was of the simplest kind, consist­ing of a single chamber, just sufficient for the necessary purposes, and without any pretensions to luxury. It was " small and dark," he says, " after the manner of the ancients." Seneca also

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